African American Almanac
543 pages

Vous pourrez modifier la taille du texte de cet ouvrage

Découvre YouScribe en t'inscrivant gratuitement

Je m'inscris

African American Almanac , livre ebook


Découvre YouScribe en t'inscrivant gratuitement

Je m'inscris
Obtenez un accès à la bibliothèque pour le consulter en ligne
En savoir plus
543 pages

Vous pourrez modifier la taille du texte de cet ouvrage

Obtenez un accès à la bibliothèque pour le consulter en ligne
En savoir plus


  • More than 800 biographies of history-making African Americans
  • Explores African American culture and identity in the United States today, the history of African Americans as well as 10 topical histories, including business, labor, politics, media, art, literature, theater, film, music, and sports
  • Single source reference on African American history.
  • Hundreds of history-making and inspiring events explored
  • From a scholar and researcher on African America history
  • Clear organization makes finding information quick and easy
  • Fascinating storytelling
  • Historical insights and explanations
  • Over 300 illustrations and photos bring the text to life
  • Helpful bibliography
  • Thoroughly indexed
  • Authoritative resource
  • Ideal for anyone seeking a better understanding of the importance of African American history
  • publicity and promotion aimed at websites
  • promotion targeting more mainstream book review media and websites
  • promotion targeting national and local radio
  • promotion targeting history and educational magazines and regional newspapers


    African American literature in the United States reached an artistic pinnacle in the period between the two world wars with the Harlem Renaissance. Since then, the fate of African American writing has reached a level of high visibility; the themes have varied from highly charged and political to private and introspective. The Black Aesthetic Movement of the 1960s and 1970s brought acclaim and prominence to many African American writers and fostered the growth of many black studies departments at universities around the country. In the 1980s and 1990s, African American writers worked in every genre—from scriptwriting to poetry—and the names of African American writers consistently were found on bestseller lists around the country. Black writers no longer were relegated to limited publishing slots because their ingenuity and creativity in getting their work out and developing their audiences created a greater exposure and a greater demand for their work. With the increase in publishing by black writers, well into the twenty-first century, African Americans have earned an increased presence in contemporary fiction reaching out to both black and white readers.

    Perhaps the greatest satisfaction for black writers before the 1920s, or the Harlem Renaissance, was to have the freedom to write; in fact, knowing how to read and write was a tremendous accomplishment for many post-Reconstruction African Americans.

    For Frederick Douglass, to write stirring diatribes against slavery powerful enough to shake the consciousness of a nation was more a political than an artistic accomplishment. Likewise, when Jupiter Hammon, George Moses Horton, and Frances Harper prosaically wrote about the evils of slavery and racism, their verse seemed somewhat stilted; they followed the molds of Methodism, neoclassicism, and the Bible, traditions ill-suited to their subject matter. However admirable their writing was, they never quite found a vehicle that fit their revolutionary thoughts.

    As the bonds of slavery were loosened, black writers clamored to be heard, but the range of their work was limited. Since slavery and plantations were practically the only subjects in their repertoire, early African American works were often locked into these themes. In addition, being a black writer before 1920 was certainly a unique profession, almost an oddity. Many writers were essentially unknown during their lives. Still others, like Phillis Wheatley and Horton, gained a certain amount of acclaim. In fact, blacks such as Paul Laurence Dunbar and Charles W. Chestnutt became truly appreciated as writers.

    White society, however, still controlled much of publishing in America; African American work was often filtered and distorted through this lens. As a result, much of the post-Reconstruction era work by African Americans was an attempt to prove that blacks could fit into middle-American society. In fact, much of the literature of this era was an attempt by blacks to appear happy with their assigned lot. Yet some writers—Dunbar and Chestnutt, for example—tried to break the chains of this imposed expression by presenting a view of black life as it really was, not as society wanted it to be.

    Although the accomplishments of writers of this era were remarkable, existing conditions seemed to keep African American letters from truly flourishing. What these authors most notably did was to pave the way for the Harlem Renaissance and to provoke authors to think about and develop a truly African American culture.

    The Harlem Renaissance began roughly around World War I and extended into the early 1930s. It began mostly as a movement of African

    American artists and writers into Harlem from practically every state in the country. The movement also saw that another hub of artistic activity was forming in Washington, D.C. In fact, Harlem artists often journeyed to Washington for a break and a new perspective.

    As African American journals such as Crisis and Opportunity began to appear, it became much easier for black writers to publish in a style that suited their tastes. Also, African American writers were finding that some white patrons in the publishing fields were, in fact, interested in promoting their work. Bohemianism was flourishing, and many of the Harlem Renaissance artists fit this label. Being called “New Negroes,” they sought to chisel out a unique, African-centered culture for blacks and to improve race relations while maintaining a distinct cultural identity.

    Important writers of this era include Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, Claude McKay, Nella Larsen, and Zora Neale Hurston. These younger writers were encouraged by the older, established writers, critics, and editors, including W. E. B. Du Bois, with his journal Crisis, and Charles S. Johnson, editor of Opportunity, a sponsor of many literary contests. In fact, Langston Hughes believed that the Renaissance came about directly because of the nurturing of older writers, including Jessie Fauset and Alain Locke.

    The Harlem Renaissance was marked by a shift away from the moralizing work, which had been characteristic of much post-Reconstruction writing that decried racism. Even though much of this writing was excellently written and eloquently executed, people like Du Bois and Locke realized that it was doing very little to change the consciousness of the country. For this reason, they decided instead to challenge these new writers to produce works that came directly out of personal experience—to communicate the ills of the racist world with art rather than essay. In this way, readers were not struck so bluntly with the grim realities presented by African American writers. These issues could be experienced through the lives of characters and in verse, and the message delivered more subtly and effectively.

    As the economic Depression deepened, the Harlem Renaissance slowly faded. Richard Wright’s publication in 1940 of Native Son marked a new era in African American literature. The years from 1940 to 1955 served as a transition period for black authors; they bridged the wildly creative period of the Renaissance with the more intense creativity and political activity that was to define the work produced during the civil rights movement.

    With the publication of his classic novel, Wright maintained that the era of the Harlem Renaissance—with its motto of “art for art’s sake”— must die and be replaced instead with works directly intended to end racism. He believed that blacks were an essential part of American society—a belief that was one of the foundations for the ideology of the civil rights movement.

    During this time, other black writers, notably poets, were taking a different road in their quest to be heard. Poets such as Gwendolyn Brooks, Melvin B. Tolson, and Robert Hayden used classical and mythical themes in their works. Indeed, Brooks won a Pulitzer Prize in 1950 for her book Annie Allen. These poets used a blend of extreme eclecticism with realistic African American issues. The blend seemed to work, as their writing was met with acceptance in the university community and beyond.

    Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man, arguably one of the best novels published in America during this century, and James Baldwin’s Go Tell It on the Mountain, were two other books that brought serious African American issues to mainstream culture. In addition, many African American works were gaining acceptance with the literary establishment and being taught in English classes around the country.

    The Black Aesthetic Movement, or the Black Arts Movement, was the first major African American artistic movement since the Harlem Renaissance. Beginning in the early 1960s and lasting through the mid-1970s, this movement was brought on not by white patrons (as the Renaissance had been in part), but by the anger of Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison, and other notable African American writers.

    This artistic movement was closely paralleled by the civil rights marches and the call for independence being experienced in the African American community. As phrases like “Black is beautiful” were popularized, African American writers of the Aesthetic Movement consciously set out to define what it meant to be a black writer in white culture. While writers of the Harlem Renaissance seemed to stumble upon their identity within, writers of the Aesthetic Movement were serious about defining themselves and their era before being defined by others.

    The Black Aesthetic Movement attempted to produce works of art that would be meaningful to the black masses. Toward this end, popular black music of the day, including John Coltrane’s jazz and James Brown’s rhythm and blues, as well as street talk, were some of the inspirational forces for their art. In fact, much of the language used in these works was abrasive and shocking— this was often a conscious attempt to show the vitality and power of black activists. These writers tended to be revolutionaries rather than diplomats—Malcolm X was more of an idol than Martin Luther King Jr. In addition, they believed that artists had more of a responsibility than just art: artists also had to be political activists in order to achieve nationalist goals.

    Leading writers in this movement include Imamu Amiri Baraka (also known as Leroi Jones), whose poetry was as well known as his political prowess; and Haki R. Madhubuti (Don L. Lee), a poet and essayist who was overwhelmingly popular, selling over 100,000 copies of his books without a national distributor. Ishmael Reed, on the other hand, an early organizer of the Black Aesthetic Movement, later dissented with some of the movement’s doctrines; he became inspired more and more by the black magic and spiritual practices of the West Indies (in what he called the “HooDoo Aesthetic”).

    Sonia Sanchez was another leading voice of the movement. She managed to combine feminism with her commitment to nurturing children and men in the fight for Black Nationalism. She joined up with the Nation of Islam from 1972 to 1975, and through her association with the Black Aesthetic Movement managed to instill stronger support for that religion.

    Many women, however, wrote in response to the Black Aesthetic Movement, protesting the role they felt women were forced to play in the male-oriented Black Nationalist movement. Zora Neale Hurston’s work was resurrected by writer and poet Alice Walker and used for inspiration and impetus in their work. These women were also supported by the women’s liberation movement, allowing their works to reach a wider audience. In this way, the female-repressive politics of the Black Aesthetic Movement provoked women writers to express their own unique voice. Women-centered writing in the 1970s also saw authors such as Nikki Giovanni, a vocal and aggressive voice during the Black Aesthetic Movement, take a more direct look at women’s roles in the need for social change. Black women were not just feminist as defined by the white women’s liberation movement, but they envisioned a movement that was inclusive of a broad cultural and familial need of family and community. Alice Walker coined the word “womanist,” which many embraced along with many of the ideologies of feminism. An emerging group also during this time was the lesbian movement which gave voice to writers such as Audre Lorde and feminist and activist June Jordan. Overall, during the 1980s, black women writers were at the leading edge of publishing—in quality as well as quantity of work.

    Since the Black Aesthetic Movement, African American writing has become more legitimized in America, and black studies departments have emerged in many universities around the country. Variety was the key to African American writing after 1950, and barriers went down in various genres. For example, Octavia Butler and Samuel Delany broke into the world of science fiction. Donald Goines wrote detective fiction that rivaled that of his contemporaries. Novels of both folk history and the urban experience were equally well received, and many artists found that they could straddle more than one genre—Alice Walker and Gayle Jones being good examples— and delve into the worlds of fiction, poetry, essay, and children’s books.

    Writers after the 1960s seem to have changed the tone by no longer placing as much emphasis on the disparity between black and white in America. In the words of Toni Morrison and John Edgar Wideman, the themes of self-reflection and healing were evident. African Americans were portrayed looking into their own inner worlds for answers, rather than letting themselves be defined by the outer world.

    The period from 1975 to the twenty-first century brought more black writers into the mainstream and greater attention to African American literature and black studies programs. Women poets such as Gwendolyn Brooks and Nikki Giovanni, and writers such as Margaret Walker, Paule Marshall, and Nobel Prize winner Toni Morrison were key in literary studies. Writers offered a broad view of the black experience while bringing new perspectives inclusive of post-modern aesthetics and the mixing of genres. Accomplished writers emerged, such as August Wilson, Ntozake Shange, and George Wolf in the theater; Rita Dove and Yusef Komunyakaa in poetry; and Alice Walker, Charles Johnson, and John Edgar Wideman in fiction. Other writers who accentuated their presence in other genres were Walter Mosley with detective novels, Octavia Butler in science fiction, as well as BeBe Moore Campbell, Charles Fuller, Charles Johnson, Gayle Jones, Terry McMillan, and Gloria Naylor who used mixed genres of history revision, magical realism, and popular culture storylines. Unlike past periods these writers shared the stage with other African American writers and were not limited by a publishing world that previously allowed only one or two noted writers at a time.

    African American authors have influenced contemporary audiences and earned numerous national and international awards. Pulitzer Prize winners include Rita Dove for poetry (1987), August Wilson a two-time winner for playwriting (1987 and 1990), and Alex Haley for his contribution to the literature of slavery (1976). The National Book Award winners since 1975 include (in fiction) Alice Walker (1983) and Charles Johnson (1990), and (in poetry) Lucille Clifton (2000).

    At the end of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first-century African American writing continues to explore identity but the oppressive legacy of the past has become often only one factor with other issues such as gender, sexual orientation, and individual challenges also being paramount. Writers such as E. Lynn Harris, Omar Tyree, Connie Briso, and Zane have developed a wide following and are bestsellers in their area of contemporary black popular fiction. These works are considered largely outside the realm of serious literature and more a function of popular culture and entertainment. With the success of many programs in African American studies, more writers are coming from academic settings.

    Works that have been adapted to films are generally more known by the general public than the literary works themselves, but they continue to create and increase audiences for both popular books and film. The influence of contemporary fiction in expanding reading audiences, both black and white, has continued the interest of mainstream publishers in black writers.

    Literature of the 21st century has taken the words of Toni Morrison from the page. Blackness is a default [a pre-selected option], unapologetic, boundless, topically and artistically free. Black Literature has evolved from a contrived absence to become symbols of artistic mastery. It is sophisticated and highly individualized. It offers a variety of voices, aesthetics, genres, literary troupes, and dynamic conversations full of romanticism and idealism. History, and specifically the slave narratives, have served to intensify the meaning of freedom while retrieving or creating stories of heroes and healing. While functionality is still an important point of discussion for the Black writers from any generation, writers in the 21st century give voice to their own reality and the reality that haunts our community. Black women continue to confront violence and the ownership of their bodies and Black men confront violence and the heightened interest and fear of their maleness. In looking at the past, present, and the future of Afrofuturism, the intersection of culture, technology, and speculative fiction [formally Black sci-fi] create, and reveal, while rejecting all previous labels and limits. Other global influences of African descent also intersect with the artistry that Black American writers bring to the page.

    Sophisticated in their mastery, writers such as Colson Whitehead winner of the Pulitzer Prize in fiction 2016, 2017, and 2020, Jesmyn Ward winner of the Pulitzer Prize for fiction, 2011 and 2017, Tyehimba Jess, Pulitzer Prize for poetry 2017, Gregory Pardlo Pulitzer Prize for Poetry 2015, Terrance Hayes winner of the National Book Award for poetry 2010, 2015, and 2018, and James McBride National Book Award winner for fiction 2013 have been recognized by the highly established order of literary organizations. Although the overall literary establishment only recognizes a small number of Black writers, and even fewer Black women, their success is still unprecedented in the scope, variety, and literary skill that has liberated and expanded the courageous and creative voice of Black American writers. The Black Caucus of the American Library Association which recognizes outstanding works by Black authors announced winners for 2019 consisting of Tayari Jones for fiction, Jeffery C. Stewart for non-fiction, Neal Hall for Poetry, Malcolm Hansen for first novel, and for 2020, Colson Whitehead for fiction, Daniel R, Day for non-fiction, Eve L. Ewing for Poetry and first novel Ta-Nehisi Coats. The opportunities for recognition, and awards both monetary and noteworthy continues to expand for Black writers.

    As contemporary Black American achievers add their stories to the Black experience and thus influence the notions of the American experience, autobiographies, biographies, and personal experiences have been an important component on the literary scene. In telling their stories and revealing a sense of self awareness, the skill and power of the narrative voice is seen in the works of the first Black President of the United States, Barack Obama, the First Black First Lady of the United States, Michelle Obama, noted political figures such as John Lewis, actresses Cicely Tyson and Gabrielle Union, journalist Ta-Nehisi Coats, producer screenwriter and author Shondra Rhymes, entrepreneur Daymond John, rapper Gucci Mane, and comedian Tiffany Haddish to name only a very few.

    New authors reveal and explore every aspect of Black life inclusive of political realities from The Hate U Give by Angie Thomas inspired by BLM; An American Marriage by Tayari Jones, when racism and injustice change the course of one couple’s life; The Other Black Girl by Zakiya Dalila Harris, exploring race, class and microaggression; Hell of a Book by Jason Mott about the cost that racism and injustice exacts from Black Americans; The Fifth Season by W.K. Jemisin, a trilogy sci-fi novel; I can’t date Jesus by Michael Arceneaux about love, sex, and family; and You Can’t Touch My Hair by Phoebe Robinson that addresses racism and feminism, all while being serious and hilarious. Black writers essentially reveal experiences of how Black Americans understand our country and how one navigates class, race, capitalism, systemic racism, microaggression, family, and diverse social constructs. Their literary contributions enrich lives and inform the spirit of the community and the nation. As the 21st century progresses there are few if any areas where Black writers will not have ventured.

    With the success of many programs in African American studies, more writers are coming from academic settings. Afro-Caribbean writers such as Suzan-Lori-Parker, Edwidge Danticat, Colson Whitehead, and Paul Beatty have also reached out to a diverse and growing audience.


    Alice Childress (1920–1994)

    Playwright, Novelist

    Born in Charleston, South Carolina, Childress studied acting at the American Negro Theatre and attended Radcliffe Institute from 1966 to 1968 through a Harvard University appointment as a scholar-writer. Her plays include Gold Through the Trees; Just a Little Simple (based on Langston Hughes’s Simple Speaks His Mind); and When the Rattlesnake Sounds: A Play about Harriet Tubman. Her other books include A Hero Ain’t Nothing but a Sandwich (novel, 1973); A Short Walk (1979); Rainbow Jordan (1981); and Many Closets (1987). Childress’s play Trouble in Mind won the Obie Award in 1956 as the best original Off-Broadway production. This made her the first woman to win the award. Many of her plays dealt with issues of miscegenation or race mixing and teen drug issues. She wrote, in the 1980s, a play based on the life of the black woman comedienne Jackie “Moms” Mabley, which was produced in New York City.

    Childress died of complications due to cancer on August 14, 1994.

    Lucille Clifton (1936 – 2010)


    Thelma Lucille Sayles, better known as Lucille Clifton, was born on June 27, 1936, in Depew, New York. She graduated from Fosdick-Masten Park High School in 1953 and attended Howard University on scholarship from 1953-1955. She left Howard due to her grades and studied at the State University of New York at Fredonia. From 1958 to 1960 Clifton worked as a Claims Clerk in the New York Division of Employment in Buffalo, and from 1960 – 1971 was a Literature assistant in the office of Education in Washington D.C. During this time Clifton was introduced to Fred James Clifton, a philosophy professor at the University of Buffalo by a friend, and writer Ishmael Reed. She married Fred James Clifton in 1958, and they had six children. Reed also took some of Clifton’s work to Langston Hughes in 1966 and Hughes, impressed by her work, included her poetry in his anthology The Poetry of the Negro 1970. Her first collection of poetry Good Times was published in 1969. The collection was listed by The New York Times as one of the year’s 10 best books.

    Clifton, having moved to Baltimore in 1967, became a poet in residence at Coppin State College in Baltimore from 1971-1974. She later became a Visiting Writer at Columbus University and at George Washington University, Professor of Creative Writing and Literature at the University of California at Santa Cruz, the Distinguished Professor of Humanities at St. Mary’s College in Maryland and a fellow at Dartmouth College in New York. In 1984 her husband died of cancer.

    Clifton’s collections of poetry include Generations: A Memoir in 1976, Next and Good Women: Poems and a Memoir 1969-1980 in 1987, Blessing the Boats: New and Selected Poems 1988-2000 in 2000, Mercy 2004. Her awards and accolades for her work include Poet Laureate of Maryland 1979-1985, noted as the first writer to have two books as finalists for the Pulitzer Prize in 1988, The National Book Award for Poetry 2000, the Ruth Lilly Poetry Prize 2007, and her works are included in numerous anthologies and journals. Clifton also wrote children’s books which include My Friend Jacob 1980, Everett Anderson’s Goodbye 1983, and One of the problems of Everett Anderson 2001. The children’s series about the life of Everett Anderson, an African American boy, received numerous awards.

    As a poet Clifton’s work has been described as having specificity that startles her readers into a new sense of being. They are explicitly for, and about African Americans and in so doing she established an African American aesthetic based on ‘Black’ speech and African structure. She purposefully left out punctuation and capitalization. While writing her poetry in the flow of her life as the mother of six, typing away at the dinner table, she examined history, social issues, family life, gender, and racism. Clifton published thirteen collections of poetry, a memoir edited by Toni Morrison, a Pulitzer Prize winning author, and sixteen children’s books.

    Clifton died on February 13, 2010, in Baltimore Maryland. In 2012 The Collected Poems of Lucille Clifton 1965-2010 was published, consisting of selected works and a substantial number of unpublished poems.

    Ta-Nehisi Coates (1975 - )

    Author, Journalist

    Ta-Nehisi Coates, born in Baltimore, Maryland, is best known for his #1 New York Times Bestseller Between the World and Me. His work as an author and journalist are centered in the cultural, political and social issues surrounding the African American experience. Coates, though having both parents, lived primarily with his father, a former Black Panther and publisher. His father and mother instilled strong middle-class values in him, while growing up in the Mondawmin neighborhood in Baltimore, in the midst of the crack epidemic. He was also encouraged to write essays and read books. Once graduating from Woodlawn High School and later attending Howard University he worked for various publications from 2000 – 2007. In 2008 he became a national correspondent for The Atlantic and contributed featured articles while maintaining a blog.

    As a journalist Coates contributed articles to the New York Times, The Washington Post, O Magazine and other publications and received recognition for many of his essays and articles. As an author he published in 2008 The Beautiful Struggle, a memoir and a coming-of-age story and in 2015 Between the World and Me, winning the National Book Award. His other books include We Were Eight Years in Power, and The Water Dance published in 2019.

    Coates career interests include working for Marvels Black Panther comic series from 2016-2021 and the Captain America comic series from 2018-2021. His awards and acknowledgments include the National Magazine Award for Essays and Criticism 2013, the NAACP Image Award 2016, a MacArthur Fellowship in 2017, the Audie Award for Literary Fiction and Classics 2020, and the British Fantasy Society Award 2020.

    Coates left The Atlantic in 2018 and continues to explore and expand his writing ventures. He currently is working on a televisions program, America in the King Years produced by Oprah Winfrey and writing a script for DC Films and Warner Brothers for a new Superman film. As announced in July of 2021, once Coats complete his pending obligations, he will join the faculty at Howard University in Washington D.C. as the Sterling Brown Chair in the English Department.

    J. California Cooper (1931 -2014)

    Playwright and Short Story Writer

    Joan Cooper was born in Berkeley, California in 1931. She attended a technical high school and later attended San Francisco State College. Cooper included California in her name when her work was compared to the work of Tennessee Williams and later used the initial of her first name.

    Cooper had the skills of a storyteller beginning in her childhood years. Since she chooses not to reveal her birth year the timing of her first endeavor is not known. Cooper began writing plays, producing works such as Everytime It Rain; System, Suckers, and Success, and Ahhh. By 1978 she had written seventeen plays and was named San Francisco’s Best Black Playwright.

    After encouragement from poet and author Alice Walker, Cooper began to write short stories. Her first collection A Piece of Mine was published in 1984. Subsequent collections include Homemade Love (1986), The Matter Is Life (1991), The Future Has a Past (2000), and Wild Stars Seeking Midnight Suns (2006). Cooper also has published novels, including The Wake of the Wind (1998), Some People, Some Other Place (2004), and Life Is Short but Wide (2010), and has been the recipient of the American Book Award in 1986, the James Baldwin Award, and Best Female Writer in Texas.

    Cooper’s work, which has a strong connection to the “folk,” and has been described as simple and direct with comparisons made to Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston. Cooper died on September 20, 2014

    Countee Cullen (1903–1946)


    Born Countee Porter on May 30, 1903, in Baltimore, he was orphaned at an early age and adopted by the Reverend Frederick Cullen, pastor of New York’s Salem Methodist Church. At New York University, Cullen won Phi Beta Kappa honors and was awarded the Witter Bynner Poetry Prize. In 1925, while still a student at New York University, Cullen completed Color, a volume of poetry that received the Harmon Foundation’s first gold medal for literature two years later.

    In 1926 he earned his M.A. at Harvard and a year later finished both The Ballad of the Brown Girl and Copper Sun. This was followed in 1929 by The Black Christ, written during a two-year sojourn in France on a Guggenheim Fellowship.

    Upon his return to New York City, Cullen began a teaching career in the public school system. During this period, he also produced One Way to Heaven (1932); The Medea and Other Poems (1935); The Lost Zoo (1940); and My Lives and How I Lost Them (1942, 1971).

    In 1947, a year after his death, Cullen’s own selections of his best work were collected in a volume published under the title On These I Stand.

    Samuel R. Delany (1942–)


    Born in Harlem, and a published writer at the age of nineteen, Delany has been a prolific writer of science fiction novelettes and novels. His first book was The Jewels of Aptor (1962), followed by Captives of the Flame (1963). Babe 117 (1966) and The Einstein Intersection (1967) both won Nebula Awards from the Science Fiction Writers of America, as have his short stories “Aye, and Gomorrah” and “Time Considered as a Helix of Semi-Precious Stones,” which also won a Hugo Award at the World Science Fiction Convention at Heidelberg. Delany coedited the speculative fiction quarterly, Quark, Numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 with his former wife, National Book Award-winning poet Marilyn Hacker. He also wrote Dahlgren in 1975 and directed and edited the half-hour film The Orchid. He also served as a visiting Butler Chair Professor of English at the State University of New York at Buffalo.

    His other books include Distant Stars (1981); Stars in My Pocket Like Grains of Sand (1984); Flight from Neveryona (1985); Neveryona (1986); and The Bridge of Lost Desire (1988). His nonfiction works include The Jewel-Hinged Jaw and The Motion of Light in Water, an autobiography.

    Delaney’s 2008 most recent book published in 2008, Dark Reflections, explores the experiences of black gay poets. The book was nominated for the Lambda Literary Award. Delaney has received numerous awards for his work and is considered a major African American writer as the genre of science fiction crosses socially constructed lines. He has been inducted into the Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame (2002) , inducted into the New York State Writers Hall of Fame (2016), and in 2021 received the Anisfield-Wolf Lifetime Achievement Award. He retired as professor of English and director of the graduate creative writing program at Temple University in Philadelphia in 2015. Delany continues to write and inspire others.

    Eric Jerome Dickey (1961 – 2021)


    Eric Jerome Dickey was a prolific and bestselling author who focused on Black life and the Black perspective in his novels. His novels encompassed stories of crime, romance, suspense and erotica. Dickey was born on July 7, 1961, in Memphis, Tennessee. His initial goals after graduating high school and later graduating from the University of Memphis in 1983 with a B.A. in computer systems technology was to pursue a career in engineering. After moving to Los Angeles and taking a writing class recommended by a friend, his trajectory changed and he successfully published his first short story, “Thirteen,” in 1994.

    Dickey went on to write 29 novels with many becoming number one in regional bestsellers lists such as the Blackboard Bestsellers. His published works include Sister, Sister (1996), Friends and Lovers (1997), Milk in My Coffee (1998), Cheaters, (1999), Liar’s Game (2000), Thieves’ Paradise (2002), The Other Woman (2003), Genevieve (2005), Naughtier than Nice (2015) Bad Men and Wicked Women (2018), and The Son of Mr. Suleman (2021). His works were featured in publications such as The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Los Angeles Times, and Essence Magazine. He had a huge fan base which resulted in his novels being published in French, Polish and Japanese. Dickey was awarded Best Contemporary Fiction and Author (Male) of the year in 2006 and in 2013 he received the R.E.A.D. Award on behalf of the NAACP.

    Dickey died on January 3, 2021 in Los Angeles, California, after a long illness.

    Rita Dove (1952–)

    Poet, Educator

    Dove was born on August 28, 1952, in Akron, Ohio. She received a B.A. from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, in 1973 and a Master of Fine Arts from the University of Iowa in 1977. Dove also attended the University of Tubingen in Germany in 1974 and 1975.

    Dove began her teaching career at Arizona State University in 1981 as an assistant professor. By 1984 she was an associate professor and by 1987 a full professor. In 1989 she joined the University of Virginia’s English department, where she continues to teach creative writing.

    Dove is a renowned poet, having won the 1987 Pulitzer Prize for poetry for a collection titled Thomas & Beulah. Her themes are universal, encompassing much of the human condition and occasionally commenting on racial issues. Among numerous works she has also published Fifth Sunday (1985), Mother Love (1995), and the play The Darker Face of the Earth (1996). In 2009 Dove published Sonata, a collection of poems, Collection of Poems 1974-2004, in (2016), and Playlist for the Apocalypse (2021).

    Besides the Pulitzer Prize, Dove has received many honors, including a presidential scholarship (1970), two Fulbright scholarships (1974, 1975), two Guggenheim Fellowships (1983, 1984), two Andrew W. Mellon Fellowships (1988, 1989), a fellowship at the Center for Advanced Studies at the University of Virginia (1989–1992), and the Walt Whitman Award (1990).

    From 1993 to 1995 Dove was named U.S. Poet Laureate, and from 2004 to 2006 she served as Poet Laureate of the Commonwealth of Virginia. In 2006 she also received the coveted Common Wealth Award of Distinguished Service along with other distinguished recipients, 2009 the Fulbright Lifetime Achievement Award, 2011 the National Medal of the Arts, and in 2019 the Wallace Stevens Award and 28 honorary degrees.

    Dove is a professor of English at the University of Virginia since 1989, as well as a classical cellist and a gambist (professional player of the viola da gamba).


    1. Africans in America
    2. Civil Rights
    3. Politics
    4. Education
    5. Religion
    6. Literature
    7. Business Entrepreneurs/Media
    8. Performing and Visual/Applied Arts
    9. Music
    10. Science, Technology, Inventors, and Explorers
    11. Sports
    12. Military




    Publié par
    Date de parution 17 octobre 2023
    Nombre de lectures 0
    EAN13 9781578598328
    Langue English
    Poids de l'ouvrage 22 Mo

    Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,1000€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.


    • Univers Univers
    • Ebooks Ebooks
    • Livres audio Livres audio
    • Presse Presse
    • Podcasts Podcasts
    • BD BD
    • Documents Documents