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Ce lexipro français-anglais est un outil de travail complet pour apprendre ou revoir le vocabulaire en anglais.Les mots spécifiques des sciences et des techniques y sont classés par thème : les mathématiques, la physique, la chimie, les sciences de la vie et de laTerre, la mécanique, le génie civil et les énergies. Outil adapté pour une maîtrise parfaite du lexique, il propose :• une sélection de mots et expressions idiomatiques ;• la ou les traductions possibles des mots et leur présentation dans une phrase ou une formule de mise en situation. Pour faciliter la recherche, deux index alphabétiques sont disponibles en fin d'ouvrage : l'un de tous les termes français, l'autre de tous les termes anglais.



Publié par
Date de parution 01 janvier 2022
Nombre de lectures 10
EAN13 9782759038235
Langue Français
Poids de l'ouvrage 3 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0595€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.


Les mots clés des sciences et techniques
Frédéric Rosard Docteur en mathématiques
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© BRÉAL 2018 Toute reproduction même partielle interdite ISBN : 978-2-7495-3823-5
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Mathématiques- Mathematics 1. Vocabulaire de base- Basic vocabulary 2. Les statistiques- Statistics 3. Les symboles- Symbols 4. Les nombres- Numbers 5. Les opérations- Basic operations 6. Les formes géométriques- Geometric forms
Physique- Physics 1. Vocabulaire de base- Basic vocabulary 2. Appareils, unités- Devices, units
Chimie- Chemistry 1. Vocabulaire de base- Basic vocabulary 2. Entités- Entities 3. Transformations, cas particuliers, structures-Transformations, special cases, structures
Sciences de la vie et de la Terre-Biology and Earth science 1. Sciences de la vie- Biology 2. Sciences de la Terre- Earth science
Mécanique- Mecanics 1. Vocabulaire de base- Basic vocabulary 2. Automobile- Automotive 3. Aéronautique- Aeronautics
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5 5 8 14 16 18 20
23 23 34
37 37 45
61 61 68
75 75 79 91
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S ommaire
Génie civil- Construction engineering 1. Vocabulaire de base- Basic vocabulary 2. Matériaux et outils- Material and tools
Énergie- Energy 1. Électricité- Electricity 2. Nucléaire- Nuclear energy 3. Énergies renouvelables- Renewable energies
Index français
Index anglais
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99 99 103
111 111 117 127
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algèbre algebra Algebra is the branch of mathematics con-cerning the study of the rules of operations and relations, and the constructions and concepts arising from them.
> algébrique algebraic
algorithme algorithm In computer science, a search algorithm is an algorithm that retrieves information stored within some data structure.
alphabet grec Greek alphabet Greek alphabet letters are used as math and science symbols.
analogie analogy A similarity in some respects between things that are otherwise dissimilar: sees an analogy between viral infection and the spread of ideas.
analyse analysis The term analysis is used in two ways in mathematics. It describes both the disci-pline of which calculus is a part and one form of abstract logic theory.
> analytique analytical
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annuler (s’) to vanish A quantity which takes on the value zero is said to vanish. A quantity that is nonzero everywhere is said to be nonvanishing.
arithmétique arithmetic/arithmetics Arithmetic or arithmetics is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics.
> arithmétique (adj.) arithmetical
> arithmétiquement arithmetically
arrondir to round An exact answer generally can not be obtained using rounded numbers.
> arrondi supérieur round up
> arrondi inférieur round down
> erreur d’arrondi roundoff
axiome axiom An axiom is a mathematical statement that is assumed to be true.
binôme binomial A polynomial equation with two terms usu-ally joined by a plus or minus sign is called a binomial.
> monôme monomial
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c’est-à-dire (c-a-d) id est (i.e) i.e. (id est) means “that is” or “in other words” and is used to paraphrase a state-ment that was just made, not to mean “for example”, and is always followed by a comma.
calcul calculus Calculus plays a starring role in the biolog-ical, physical, and social sciences.
cas dégénéré degeneracy case In mathematics, a degenerate case is a lim-iting case in which a class of object changes its nature so as to belong to another, usu-ally simpler, class.
coefficient coefficient Number or quantity placed (generally) before and multiplying another quantity.
condition nécessaire necessary condition To be a good concert pianist, having good finger techniques is a necessary condition.
> condition suffisante sufficient condition
conjecturer to surmise We surmise that the more complex models required by these problems.
> conjecture conjecture
contraposée contrapositive The contrapositive of “If it is raining then the grass is wet” is “If the grass is not wet then it is not raining.”
corollaire corollary In geometry, a corollary is a statement that is proven true by another statement or considered to be a consequence of a state-ment’s truth.
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CQFD (ce qu’il fallait démontrer) QED (quod erat demonstrandum) QED is usually placed at the end of a math-ematical proof to indicate that the proof is complete. décimal/la décimale decimal A decimal is any number in our base-ten number system. déduire to deduce Descartes’s own attempts to deduce the dif-ferent qualities and actions of bodies in this way are not of much value. dénombrable countable The strict mathematical definition of a countable set is a set that is in bijective correspondance to the natural numbers, which are the integers from.
domaine d’étude domain of study The power of expression, properties and interrelations of various logics with gener-alised quantifies is now a well established domain of study in mathematical logic. équation equation An equation is a statement that two expres-sions are equal. > résoudre une équation to solve an equation exact exact As used in physics, the term “exact” gen-erally refers to a solution that captures the entire physics and mathematics of a prob-lem as opposed to one that is approximate, perturbative, etc. Exact solutions therefore need not be closed-form. > exactitude/justesse accuracy exemple example Sometimes the best way to learn is by work-ing some example problems until you begin to understand the subject.
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> contre-exemple > nécessairement counterexample necessarily forme négligeable shape negligible Common two dimensional (2D) shapes are: As a result, the effect of this change will Circles, squares, triangles, etc. be negligible. formule paramètre formula parameter So before you can understand math for-A parameter is a variable that is held con-mulas you need to learn what each of the stant when the function is used. symbols are and what they mean (including the letters). par conséquent > formulerconsequently to formulate Consequently, logic proceeds with the same absence of any determinate claims about fraction method and subject matter with which fraction mathematics must begin. A mathematical joke states that 4/3 of peo-ple don’t understand fractions. par exemple/p. ex. géométrieexempli gratia/e.g. geometry e.g. (exempli gratia) means “for example” Geometry is a branch of mathematics that and is usually used to give an example deals with points, lines, angles, surfaces, of a statement that was just made and is and solids. always followed by a comma. > géométrique pourcentage geometric/geometrical percentage > géométriquement In mathematics, a percentage is a number geometrically in the fraction of 100. It is often denoted with the symbol of “%”, or simply “pct” hypothèse or “percent”. hypothesis/assumption In mathematics, a hypothesis is an unproven preuve statement which is supported by all the proof available data and by many weaker results. A proof is a logical argument that estab-> hypothèse intrinsèque lishes, beyond any doubt, that something intrinsic assumption is true. lemme problème lemma problem The four labels given by mathematicians Problem solving has a special importance to statements that can be shown to be true are Lemma, Theorem, Proposition and in the study of mathematics. Corollary. > problème mal posé nécessaire ill-posed problem necessary “Science is facts; just as houses are madede démarche> problème of stones, so is science made of facts; butprocess problem a pile of stones is not a house and a col-> problème réel lection of facts is not necessarily science.” Jules Henri Poincaré (1854-1912)realistic problem
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réciprocité reciprocity The American Mathematical Society has reciprocity agreements with a number of mathematical organizations around the world. > réciproquement conversely > réciproque reciprocal or inverse > réciproque d’un théorème converse of a theorem récurrence induction Mathematical Induction is a special way of proving things. It has only 2 steps: Step 1. Show it is true for the first one. Step 2. Show that if any one is true then the next one is true. Then all are true. > par récurrence by induction si, et seulement si (ssi) if, and only if, (iff) x+2=7 if and only if x=5. soit let… be Let x be any real number. statistiques statistics “Statistics have shown that mortality increases perceptibly in the military dur-ing wartime.” Alphonse Allais (1854-1905) solution solution The Mathematics education community has long recognized the importance of diagrams in the solution of mathematical problems. supposer to assume The way Hypothesis handles this is to let you specify things which you assume to be true. > supposition assumption
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tâtonnement trial and error/guess and check Any equation can be solved by trial and error. However, this is a tedious procedure. terme term ² The term is x , which is the product of x and x. > termes semblables like terms théorème theorem A theorem is a statement that can be demon-strated to be true by accepted mathematical operations and arguments. topologie topology Topology is the mathematical study of the properties that are preserved through deformations, twistings, and stretchings of objects.
virgule (chiffres) decimal point/point Here is the number “forty-five and six-tenths” written as a decimal number: 45.6. The decimal point goes between Ones and Tenths.
agir en amont/anticiper/prendre les devants to be proactive By looking into the future, action–what-ever it is–becomes proactive rather than reactive. amélioration continuelle/ amélioration en continu continual improvement Continuous improvement is a method for identifying opportunities for streamlining work and reducing waste.
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amélioration de la qualité quality improvement Quality improvement is the reduction of variability in processes and products.
amplitude amplitude It means therefore, a strong amplitude and exaggeration of the shock in the demand-side to the supply-side.
assignable assignable The objective of variations is to discover when assignable causes are present and eliminate them.
attribut attribute There are two categories of Control Charts: Attribute and Variables.
capabilité capability An SPC with fine detection capability indi-cates that the SPC wants to have security policy rules to be able to detect not only critical, but also trivial intrusion.
caractéristique characteristic In probability theory and statistics, the characteristic function of any real-valued random variable completely defines its probability distribution.
carte de contrôle control chart The control chart is a graph used to study how a process changes over time with data plotted in time order.
carte R R-chart/range chart An R-chart uses amount of dispersion in a sample.
carte x bar x bar chart/mean chart An x bar chart is used to monitor the aver-age value, or mean, of a process over time.
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cause commune/cause aléatoire common cause/natural cause Common cause variation is fluctuation caused by unknown factors resulting in a steady but random distribution of output around the average of the data.
cause profonde root cause While unpredictable variation is best iden-tified using an SPC chart, the sources of this variation will need root cause analysis for identification that leads to actions to eliminate or minimize these causes.
cause spéciale/cause asssignable special cause/assignable cause Special cause variation is a shift in output caused by a specific factor such as envi-ronmental conditions or process input parameters. centile percentile The pth percentile is that score such that p percent of the observations score lower or equal to the score. > quantile quantile > quartile quartile coefficient de variation coefficient of variation A coefficient of variation (CV) can be cal-culated and interpreted in two different settings: analyzing a single variable and interpreting a model. > quartile supérieur (Q3) upper quartile, third quartile > quartile inférieur (Q1) lower quartile, first quartile contrôle qualité quality control Quality control is a process through which a business seeks to ensure that product quality is maintained or improved and manufacturing errors are reduced or eliminated.
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> contrôle renforcé tightened inspection contrôle de reception acceptance inspection This implies that acceptance sampling is best carried on at the supplier’s location so that feedback of the information gener-ated by acceptance inspection can lead to corrective actions. diagramme circulaire à secteurs (camembert) pie chart/circle graph The purpose of a histogram is to graphi-cally summarize the distribution of a uni-variate data set.
diagramme de Gantt Gantt chart Gantt Charts are a popular project man-agement tool for planning and scheduling projects.
diagramme de Pareto Pareto chart A Pareto chart combines a column chart and a line graph. The Pareto principle states that, for many events, 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes.
diagramme des causes-effet/ diagramme d’Ishikawa/diagramme en arête de poisson cause and effect diagram/Ishikawa diagram/fishbone diagram One way to capture these different ideas and stimulate the team’s brainstorming on root causes is the cause and effect diagram, commonly called a fishbone.
diagramme de Tukey (boîte à moustaches) box plot In descriptive statistics, a box plot or box-plot is a convenient way of graphically depicting groups of numerical data through their quartiles.
diagramme fonctionnel block diagram A block diagram is an engineering flow-chart used to design new systems or to describe and improve existing ones.
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diagramme isométrique isometric chart Isometric bar charts use the perspective projection of visual elements to display several sets of quantitative data within the same diagram that would be overlapping in a conventional two-dimensional chart.
diagramme logatithmique logarithmic graph A logarithmic graph does not show the rate of change.
dispersion dispersion A way of describing how scattered or spread out the observations in a sample are. Common measures of dispersion are the range, inter quartile range, variance, and standard deviation.
données data A table is a convenient way to show large amount of data in a small space.
> variable binaire binary data > base de données database > banque de données data bank > données multidimensionnelles/ données multivariables multidimensional data écart absolu absolute square The Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) of a set of data is the average distance between each data value and the mean. écart type standard deviation The sample standard deviation is simply the square root of the variance. effectif size Effect size is a statistical concept that measures the strength of the relationship between two variables on a numeric scale.
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