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French Painting 120 illustrations , livre ebook

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105 pages
English

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Description

The influence of works by French artists extends itself across all artistic styles, and many French works have gained world fame as classics. This book gives an overview of the French milestones in still lifes, portraits, and landscapes, and includes artists like Poussin, Clouet, Moreau, Millet, Courbet, Signac, and Rouault. The convenient format makes the Mega Square edition an ideal gift for any art lover.

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Publié par
Date de parution 04 juillet 2023
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9781781608494
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 7 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0700€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

Extrait

Victoria Charles




French Painting
16 th - 20 th Centuries

120 illustrations
© 2022, Confidential Concepts, Worldwide, USA
© 2022, Parkstone Press USA, New York
© Image-Bar www.image-bar.com
© 2006 Balthasar Balthus Estate, Artists Rights Society, New York, USA / ADAGP, Paris
© 2006 Pierre Bonnard Estate, Artists Rights Society, New York, USA / ADAGP, Paris
© 2006 Georges Braque Estate, Artists Rights Society, New York, USA / ADAGP, Paris
© 2006 Bernard Buffet Estate, Artists Rights Society, New York, USA / ADAGP, Paris
© 2006 Maurice Denis Estate, Artists Rights Society, New York, USA / ADAGP, Paris
© 2006 André Derain Estate, Artists Rights Society, New York, USA / ADAGP, Paris
© 2006 Marcel Duchamp Estate, Artists Rights Society, New York, USA / ADAGP, Paris
© 2006 Raoul Dufy Estate, Artists Rights Society, New York, USA / ADAGP, Paris
© 2006 Jean-Louis Forain Estate, Artists Rights Society, New York, USA / ADAGP, Paris
© 2006 Marie Laurencin Estate, Artists Rights Society, New York, USA / ADAGP, Paris
© 2006 Fernand Léger Estate, Artists Rights Society, New York, USA / ADAGP, Paris
© 2006 Albert Marquet Estate, Artists Rights Society, New York, USA / ADAGP, Paris
© 2006 Henri Matisse, Les Héritiers Matisse, Artists Rights Society, New York, USA / ADAGP, Paris
© 2006 Francis Picabia Estate, Artists Rights Society, New York, USA / ADAGP, Paris
© 2006 Georges Rouault Estate, Artists Rights Society, New York, USA / ADAGP, Paris
© 2006 Paul Signac Estate, Artists Rights Society, New York, USA / ADAGP, Paris
© 2006 Edouard Vuillard Estate, Artists Rights Society, New York, USA / ADAGP, Paris
All rights reserved. No part of this may be reproduced or adapted without the permission of the copyright holder, throughout the world.
Unless otherwise specified, copyright on the works reproduced lies with the respective photographers. Despite intensive research, it has not always been possible to establish copyright ownership. Where this is the case, we would appreciate notification.
ISBN: 978-1-78160-849-4
Contents
Beneath the Banner of Faith
Mythology and Literature
Historic Deeds
Battle
Faces and Characters
Daily Life
Fêtes Galantes and The Life of High Society
Interiors
Pictures of Nature
The Language of Objects
Animals
Exotica
The Nude
Allegory
List of Illustrations
Young Girls on the Edge of the Sea
Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, 1879. Oil on canvas, 205 x 154.3 cm, Musée d’Orsay, Paris




“There isn’t a single person or landscape or subject which doesn’t possess some interest, although it may not be immediately apparent. When a painter discovers this hidden treasure, other people are immediately struck by its beauty.“
— Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Virgin and Child surrounded by Angels
Jean Fouquet, c.1450. Oil on panel, 91 x 81 cm. Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp
Beneath the Banner of Faith
There is a certain logic in the fact that the earliest works of French painting are scattered around the world. A long historical pause ended only towards the beginning of the seventeenth century. The large format, strongly constructed, powerfully-modelled compositions of the Caravaggist le Valentin open up a broad vista into a century which was again destined to make French genius celebrated. Like Caravaggio, le Valentin was inclined to treat sacred subjects in a specific, naturalistic spirit, as if seeking to persuade the viewer of the factual authenticity of what was shown taking place.
Of course, this naturalism with its forced chiaroscuro is rhetorical in nature and thus differs in principle from similar tendencies of later times (in nineteenth-century painting, for example). The struggle between light and shade in le Valentin’s Denial of St Peter is undoubtedly something more than an effective painter’s technique for modelling form. Together with the eloquent gesticulation, this chiaroscuro serves to bring out the inner meaning of the subject: light and shade vie with each other like faith and fear in the mind of the apostle. The man who was destined to give true expression to French artistic genius was a native of the provinces - Nicolas Poussin, from a small place in Normandy.
His climb to the summit of art was a very difficult one, but the heights he attained were unreachable for any of his noted contemporaries, be it Simon Vouet, Philippe de Champaigne, Sébastian Bourdon, Eustache Le Sueur or Charles le Brun. Exceptionally receptive to anything that might enrich his experience, Poussin’s work was undoubtedly more than the sum total of the influences on him. But his statement that he neglected nothing on the way to perfection should be taken literally. In scholarly works today one finds it persistently repeated that Poussin did not reproduce the old, but created an independent artistic system.
The Scriptures were one of Poussin’s chief sources of inspiration. In resurrecting scenes from the Old Testament and Christian history, he managed to endow them with a spirit of the truly ideal. Under his brush they exude majesty and nobility. In this sense Poussin, like no one else, understood, appreciated and took in the achievements of ancient art. He passed through quite a few stages on his way to attaining his lofty style. The relatively late masterpiece Rest on the Flight into Egypt is frequently underestimated, chiefly because its rhythmic structure is reduced to a somewhat abstracted combination of local colours.
In point of fact it is a genuine masterpiece of integrity and compositional unity; pure painterly taste can afford to make sacrifices for the sake of a visual value of a higher order. Calm and majesty — this is the overall atmosphere of the scene that Poussin depicted. Mary and Joseph have taken refuge in the shadow of a temple to slake their thirst and hunger. Their movements are smooth. The same slowness is seen in the gestures of the women standing nearby and in the boy who has got down on his knees.


The Denial of St Peter
Valentin de Boulogne, called Le Valentin, early 17th C. Oil on canvas, 119 x 172 cm. Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow


The Crucifixion
Charles Le Brun, 1637. Oil on panel, 52 x 41 cm. Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow


Magdalene of the Night Light
Georges de La Tour, 1642-1644. Oil on canvas, 128 x 94 cm. Musée du Louvre, Paris


Rest on the Flight into Egypt
Nicolas Poussin, 1655-1657. Oil on canvas, 105 x 145 cm. The State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg
The silhouettes of these figures seem to have come down off some ancient fresco. The prime significance of the Holy Family is indicated by the placement of the group in the centre and also by the dominant vertical element, the distant temple and obelisk which combine with the horizontally extended procession (in the same distant plane) to produce something like a system of geometrical axes. There is not a single line here that is not reconciled with the others. Their rhythm is entirely devoted to harmony. Among Poussin’s followers there were artists of very different hues.
One of the master’s most loyal disciples, Sébastian Bourdon, developed such a capacity for mimicry that often, at a passing glance, he seems to have literally transformed himself into Poussin. In the history of the genre we are currently considering, the seventeenth century represents a peak which French art was destined never again to attain. Generally speaking, in the eighteenth century French painting is marked by the dominance of ties with Flanders over those with Italy (although the old Venetian school continued to have an effect). In this sense it is possible to assert that sensualism triumphed over rationalism.
With regard to the religious genre, it is worth singling out two characteristic features. First, the tribute paid to the intimate, emotional aspect led to substantial stylistic alterations. Secondly, within the traditional repertoire of the genre, particular significance accrued to subjects with sensual and erotic overtones. The evolution of genres provides a demonstration of the changes of spiritual climate in human society. As the consolidating power of religion diminishes, art loses its capacity to be inspired by it, and even if a bright creative individual displays a depth of religious sentiment and a need to give that sentiment visual expression in paints, that is still not enough to turn back the clock.
In the nineteenth century there was an obvious decline in religious art, which expressed itself first and foremost in the loss of its stylistic integrity. The genre lost its “face”. Subjects drawn from the Scriptures were treated in a variety of ways — from degenerate Classical interpretations to earthy Naturalism, but it is undoubtedly clear that this variety bears the nature of a decline. An effect appears which one might call “the wrong tone of speech”: sometimes an academically cold style, sometimes a smoothness as encouraged by the Salon, sometimes a debasing “everydayness”.
It is as if the genre’s power to inspire has been exhausted; it falls into imitation of its fellows. The great archaist Ingres, stubborn in his desire not to belong to his own age, created images of the Virgin full of the nobility of old painting.
In the last years of the century, Maurice Denis — a consistent traditionalist, zealous Catholic and a theoretician of religious art — tried to revive the forgotten possibilities of the genre. His main achievements in this field, however, belong to the following century.


Ex-Voto
Philippe de Champaigne, 1662. Oil on canvas, 165 x 229 cm. Musée du Louvre, Paris


The Descent from the Cross
Jean Jouvenet, 1697. Oil on canvas, 424 x 312 cm. Musée du Louvre, Paris


Saint Bruno investing Followers with the Habit of his Order
Eustache Le Sueur, 1845-1848. Oil on canvas, 193 x 130 cm. Musée du Louvre, Paris
Martha and Mary
Maurice Denis, 1896. Oil on canvas, 77 x 116 cm. The State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg
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