Painting and Devotion in Golden Age Iberia
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Luis de Morales, known as El Divino because of his intensely religious subject matter, is the most significant and recognisable Spanish painter of the mid-sixteenth century, the high point of the Spanish and Portuguese counter-reformations. He spent almost his entire working life in the Spanish city of Badajoz, not far from the border with Portugal, and did not travel outside of a small area around that city, straddling the border. The social, political and cultural environment of Badajoz and its environs is crucial for a thorough understanding of Morales’s output, and this book provides context in detail – considering literature and liturgical theatre, the situation of converted Jews and Muslims, the presence of Erasmianism, Lutheranism and Illuminism (Alumbradismo), devotional writing for lay people, and proximity to the Bragança ducal palace in Portugal as a means of explaining this most enigmatic of painters.

Table of Contents
List of Figures
Chapter I: Badajoz in the 1540s: City of Joy
Chapter II: Badajoz in the 1550s: Iconographical Licence
Chapter III: Badajoz in the 1560s: Meditation on the Life and Death of Christ
Chapter IV: Tridentine Badajoz and its environs: The Model Male Penitent
Chapter V: Both Sides of the Border: The Two Franciscos



Publié par
Date de parution 01 juin 2020
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9781786836038
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 21 Mo

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00 Prelims PAINTING_2020_5_15.indd 1 15-May-20 11:45:09 AMStudieS in ViSual Culture
SerieS editorS
Margaret t opping
Queen’s University, Belfast
r achael Langford
Cardif University
Giuliana Pieri
Royal Holloway, University of London
editoriAL Bo Ard
Mieke Bal
University of Amsterdam
Paul Cooke
University of Leeds
Anne Freadman
The University of Melbourne
María Pilar r odríguez
Universidad de Deusto
 eric thau
University of Hawai’i at Manoa
available in series
Aimee israel-Pelletier,
Rimbaud’s Impressionist Poetics: Vision and Visuality (2012)
Nathalie Aubert (ed.),
Proust and the Visual (2013)
Susan Harrow (ed.),
The Art of the Text: Visuality in nineteenth- and twentieth-century
literary and other media (2013)
00 Prelims PAINTING_2020_5_15.indd 2 15-May-20 11:45:09 AMStudieS in ViSual Culture
Painting and Devotion in
Golden Age Iberia
Luis de Morales
Jean Andrews
University of Wales Press
00 Prelims PAINTING_2020_5_15.indd 3 15-May-20 11:45:10 AM© Jean Andrews, 2020
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any material
form (including photocopying or storing it in any medium by electronic
means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of
this publication) without the written permission of the copyright owner.
Applications for the copyright owner’s written permission to reproduce any
part of this publication should be addressed to the University of Wales Press,
University Registry, King Edward VII Avenue, Cardif CF10 3NS.
British Library CIP Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-78683-602-1
e-ISBN 978-1-78683-603-8
The right of Jean Andrews to be identifed as author of this work has been
asserted in accordance with sections 77 and 79 of the Copyright, Designs and
Patents Act 1988.
Typeset in Wales by Eira Fenn Gaunt, Cardif
Printed by CPI Antony Rowe, Melksham
00 Prelims PAINTING_2020_5_15.indd 4 15-May-20 11:45:11 AMContents
Series editors’ preface vii
Acknowledgements ix
List of fguresxi
1 Badajoz in the 1540s: City of Joy 1
2 Badajoz in the 1550s: Iconographical Licence 40
3 Badajoz in the 1560s: Meditation on the Life and
Death of Christ 77
4 Tridentine Badajoz and its Environs: The Model
Male Penitent 140
5 Both Sides of the Border: The Two Franciscos 191
Afterword 215
Notes 217
00 Prelims PAINTING_2020_5_15.indd 5 15-May-20 11:45:11 AMSeries editors’ preface
Studies in Visual Culture provides a forum for ground-breaking enquiry into
visual-cultural production in its social, historical and cultural contexts. The
series places particular emphasis on the exchanges, transactions and
displacements that link Europe to wider global contexts across the visual-cultural
feld. The series seeks to promote critical engagement with visual media as
ideological and cultural as well as aesthetic constructs, and foregrounds the
relationship of visual cultures to other felds and discourses, including cultural
history, literary production and criticism, philosophy, gender and sexuality
research, journalism and media studies, migration and mobility studies, social
sciences, and politics. The Studies in Visual Culture series thus focuses on
exploring synergies and key debates between disciplines, concepts and
theoretical approaches, and ofers an exciting new arena for testing and
extending disciplinary, theoretical and conceptual boundaries.
00 Prelims PAINTING_2020_5_15.indd 7 15-May-20 11:45:11 AMAcknowledgements
The list of institutions and individuals I must thank for their assistance and
kindness over the course of the preparation of this book is long.
Institutions: the University of Nottingham for research leave and Santander
Universities for funding visits to galleries and churches in Spain and Portugal.
All those galleries, large and small, and churches who generously gave
permission to reproduce images gratis.
Individuals: Leticia Ruiz Gómez for showing me the Prado Morales paintings
not on public display; Alexandra Markl at the Drawings and Engravings
Collection of the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon, for letting me look
at their Morales (and possible Morales) drawings; Jesús Jiménez González
for taking me round the collection at the Museo Catedralico de Badajoz and
for sending me away with a pile of useful and hard-to-fnd books; Verónica
Molano Cid and Fr Juan Manuel García Acedo for welcoming me to the parish
church of the Assumption in Arroyo de la Luz to see the altarpiece there;
Fr José María Muñoz for his kindness regarding the Virgin and Child with the
Little Bird in the parish church of St Augustine, Madrid; Mercedes Orantos
Sánchez-Rodrigo for allowing me into the church of St Martin, Plasencia to
see the altarpiece before it became a visitor site; Daniel Silva for giving me
access to the Hispanic Society of America’s Holy Family with the Horoscope of
Christ, José Alberto Conderana for context on the Morales Magdalen once
kept at the Clerecía building in Salamanca; Teresa Álvarez González for
information on the sculptor Pedro de Árbulo; Olivia Fryman for intercession
with trustees; Daniel Benito Goerlich for showing me the Morales triptych
in the Real Colegio-Seminario de Corpus Christi in Valencia; María Cruz de
Carlos Varona for help in sourcing images; and Eddie Langé for instructing
me in how Morales worked and Gill Langé for her warm hospitality.
I also acknowledge the encouragement and support of Terry O’Reilly,
Anne J. Cruz, Laura R. Bass and Jeremy Roe, as well as the friendship of
00 Prelims PAINTING_2020_5_15.indd 9 15-May-20 11:45:11 AMAcknowledgements
my colleagues in Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies at the
University of Nottingham.
00 Prelims PAINTING_2020_5_15.indd 10 15-May-20 11:45:11 AMFigures
Figure 1
Luis de Morales, The Virgin and Child with the Little Bird, 1546, oil on panel
transferred to canvas, 210 x 158 cms, church of St Augustine, Madrid.
Figure 2
Rafaello Sanzio, The Madonna with the Goldfnch, 1505–6, oil on panel,
107 x 77 cms, Gallerie degli Ufzi, Florence, inv. 1890, 1447. 30
Figure 3
Juan Correa de Vivar, The Virgin with the Goldfnch, 1548–50, oil on panel,
43 x 36.5 cms, Colegio de Doncellas Nobles, Toledo © Patrimonio Nacional,
inv. 00680728. 32
Figure 4
Luis de Morales, The Virgin and Child with St John, c.1545–55, oil on oak panel,
167 x 122 cms, Salamanca cathedral, Salamanca. 34
Figure 5
Luis de Morales, Holy Family with the Horoscope of Christ, c.1554–60, oil
on walnut panel, 91 x 67 cms, Hispanic Society of America, New York ,
inv. A78. 40
Figure 6
Luis de Morales, The Presentation in the Temple, c.1562, oil on oak panel, 146.5
x 116 cms, Prado Museum, Madrid, inv. P943.
00 Prelims PAINTING_2020_5_15.indd 11 15-May-20 11:45:11 AMFigures
Figure 7
Luis de Morales, The Birth of the Virgin, 1562–7, oil on walnut panel, 69.2 x
93.2 cms, Prado Museum, Madrid, P7859.
Figure 8
Luis de Morales, Virgin Dressed as a Gypsy with the Child Jesus, c.1567, oil on
panel, 57 x 41 cms, Fondo Cultural Villar Mir, Madrid.
Figure 9
Luis de Morales, Lamentation over the Dead Christ, c.1566, oil on oak panel,
167.5 x 125 cms, Museo de Salamanca, inv. IG 106; photo Manuel Blanco/
AMP digital, Archivo Fotográfco, Museo de Salamanca.
Figure 10
Luis de Morales, Juan de Ribera, c.1566, oil on oak panel, 52.3 x 40 cms, Prado
Museum, Madrid, inv. P947.
Figure 11
Luis de Morales, Calvary with Donor, c.1565–75, oil on panel, 235.5 x 156.6
cms, Museo de Bellas Artes, Valencia, inv. 445.
Figure 12
Luis de Morales, Virgin and Child, c.1565, oil on chestnut panel, 83.7 x 63.7
cms, Prado Museum, Madrid, inv. 2656.
Figure 13
Luis de Morales, The Virgin and Child with the Distaf, 1566, oil on chestnut
panel, 64.5x 45 cms, Prado Museum, Madrid, inv. P7864.
Figure 14
Luis de Morales, Pietà, c.1560, oil on oak panel, 126 x 98 cms, Real Academia
de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid, inv. 612.
00 Prelims PAINTING_2020_5_15.indd 12 15-May-20 11:45:11 AMFigures
Figure 15
Luis de Morales, Pietà, 1553–4, oil on panel, 114.4 x 84.2 cms, Museo Catedralicio,
Figure 16
Anon. Netherlandish, Portable passion polyptich (10 panels), panel no. 10
Pietà (inner central panel), mid-sixteenth century, oil on oak panel, 24.2 x
20.2 cms, Wernher Collection, London, ©The Wernher Foundation Historic
England Archive, inv. K011220.
Figure 17
After Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna of the Yarnwinderc, .520–30, oil on panel,
62 x 48.8cms, National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburgh, inv. NG2270.
Figure 18
Luis de Morales, Man of Sorrows, 1566, oil on walnut panel, 60.5 x 44 cms,
Prado Museum, Madrid, inv. P007867.
Figure 19
Luis de Morales, The Man of Sorrows, c.1560, oil on panel, 64.45 x 46.36 cms,
Minneapolis Institute of Art, Minneapolis, inv. The Ethel Morrison van Derlip
Fund, 62.24.
Figure 20
Frei Carlos, Christ, the Good Shepherd, c.1520, oil on panel, 90 x 65 cms, Museu
Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon, inv. 1 Pint; photo Luisa Oliveira/José Paulo
Ruas ©Direção-Geral do Património Cultural/Arquivo de Documentação
Figure 21
Nicolás Francés, St Jerome Translating the Gospels, c.1450, tempera on panel,
98 x 59 cms, National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin, inv. 1013.
00 Prelims PAINTING_2020_5_15.indd 13 15-May-20 11:45:11 AMFigures
Figure 22
Leonardo da Vinci, St Jerome, c.1480–2, oil and tempera on walnut panel,
102.8 x 73.5 cms, Vatican Museums, Rome, inv. 40337.
Figure 23
Cosmè Tura, St Jerome, c.1470, oil and tempera on poplar panel, 101 x 57.2
cms, © The National Gallery, London, inv. NG773.
Figure 24
Hieronymus Bosch, St Jerome in Prayer, c.1485, oil on panel, 80.1 x 60.6 cms,
Fine Arts Museum, Ghent, inv. 1908-H.
Figure 25
Anon., The Penitent St Jerome, mid-sixteenth century, oil on panel, 49 x 34
cms, Museo de Bellas Artes, Cáceres, inv.

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