The different definitions of Hospitality and Tourism  and how they relate to economic
12 pages
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The different definitions of Hospitality and Tourism and how they relate to economic

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UNIVERSITY CENTER “CESAR RITZ”The definition(s) of Hospitality and Tourism in relation to economic studiesSector analysis projectAn Assignment submitted on25 March 2003by:Tim Smet301507Submitted to :Prof. ProsserIn partial fulfilment for the requirement of the Degree ofMaster of Science in International Hospitality ManagementTim Smet - 301507Sector Analysis Project–Winter term 2003Table of contentsIntroduction................................................................................................................................. 1A definition for tourism............................................................................................................... 1The consensus on the costumer definition................................................................................ 1The confusion on a supplier definition..................................................................................... 2Conclusion .............................................................................................................................. 3A definition for Hospitality ......................................................................................................... 4Some definitions...................................................................................................................... 4General............................................................................................................................... ...

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UNIVERSITY CENTER “CESAR RITZ”
The definition(s) of Hospitality and Tourism in relation to economic studies Sector analysis project
An Assignment submitted on 25 March 2003
by: Tim Smet 301507
Submitted to : Prof. Prosser
In partial fulfilment for the requirement of the Degree of Master of Science in International Hospitality Management
Tim Smet  301507 Sector Analysis Project
Winter term 2003
Table of contents
Introduction................................................................................................................................. 1 A definition for tourism............................................................................................................... 1 The consensus on the costumer definition ................................................................................ 1 The confusion on a supplier definition ..................................................................................... 2 Conclusion .............................................................................................................................. 3 A definition for Hospitality ......................................................................................................... 4 Some definitions...................................................................................................................... 4 General................................................................................................................................ 4 King (1995) ......................................................................................................................... 4 Angelo and Vladimir ........................................................................................................... 5 Powers................................................................................................................................. 6 Brymer and Huffman ........................................................................................................... 6 Ditmer ................................................................................................................................. 7 Conclusion .............................................................................................................................. 7 Some common characteristics.............................................................................................. 7 Some differences ................................................................................................................. 7 Why there is no universal definition for hospitality .............................................................. 8 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................. 8 Bibliography ............................................................................................................................. 10
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Tim Smet  301507 Sector Analysis ProjectWinter term 2003
The definition(s) of Hospitality and Tourism in relation to economic studies
Introduction
The purpose of this research is to provide the reader with a clear cut definition of both Tourism
and Hospitality. These will be looked at from the angle of macroeconomic research. Most of the
existing macroeconomical research on these industries is based on tourism so it is very
important to clearly understand the difference between tourism and hospitality, in order to be able
to adapt tourism research to the hospitality industry. Definitions however in order to be usable for
economic research should be clear and should look at the sector from the suppliers side (industry
definitions), not from the consumer’s perspective(market definitions). A consumer definition
does not show an economically measurable unit as most of the supplier companies that can be
considered either hospitality or tourism are only partially included in these definitions. Most
definitions however are consumer based.
A definition for tourism
The consensus on the costumer definition
The definition of tourism as used by the UN and the WTO (World Tourism Organisation).
“According to the WTO/United Nations Recommendations on Tourism Statistics, Tourism
comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.”1
1http://www.worldtourism.org/market research/facts&figures/menu.htm _
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Tim Smet  301507 Sector Analysis ProjectWinter term 2003
The confusion on a supplier definition
Tourism definitions are divided into two groups, according to Trembley (1998) some researchers
tend to refuse defining tourism as an industry, they however define it as ‘a complex market or a
marginal consumption activity superimposed on real growth industries’ (Trembley, 1998:840).
Wilson (1998) adds to this that the definition of an Industry, namely beinga grouping of firms
which operate similar processes and could produce technically indentical products (or services)
within a given planning h ri ’the tourism industry to exist, he statesdoes not allow for o zon
however that there might be a tourismrelated industry. This means that there can not be a supply
side definition of tourism as it interferes to much with other industries.
The other group led by Leiper states that tourism should be looked at as an industry because of its
commercial importance. Leiper (2000) devides tourism definitions into three categories. One
group for the common use one for the qualitative research and one for the technical quantitative
research. Leiper (2000) argues that this is logical as for example the definition as used by the
WTO (see above) includes far to many people into the tourism to fit a common sense definition
of a tourist.
According to Leiper not recognizing tourism as a separate industry will lead to an overestimation
of the effect of tourism. He uses in this extend the reference to a left handed industry, if it is not
clearly identified it can encapsulate about 10% of the total economy as approximately 10% of the
people are lefthanded, and therefore indicate that there are millions of jobs attributable to this
industry. The reality however is that the industry is existing but only employs a handful of people
working in shops especially targeted at left handed people.
Leiper defined tourism as follows (according to Wilson K. 1998, p. 803):
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Tim Smet  301507 Sector Analysis ProjectWinter term 2003
The system invoking the discretionary travel and temporary stay of persons away from their usual place of residence for one or more nights, excepting tours made for the primary purpose of earning remuneration from points en route. The elements of the system are tourists, generating regions, transit routes, destination regions, and a tourist industry. These five elements are arranged in spatial and functional connections. However even with this definition of tourism the question for a definition of the tourism industry
remains. According to Wilson the ISIC (International standard industrial specification) does not
include a definition for tourism he also quotes (1998:813) David Lengyel who states that :
Enterprises, whose main activity is required to be separately identified for tourism statistics purposes, often get lost in a category which comprises a majority of enterprises which are not of special interest to tourism. This is particularly a problem when only a small portion of the activity of the relevant enterprise is a result of tourist activity. […] Many enterprises could be significant suppliers to tourists of a product which is only the secondary activity. This activity then is “lost” in another category. This may not be significant when looking the total activity within a category, but could represent significant activity for tourism.
Conclusion
The general conclusion of this part on tourism can be that tourism is mostly considered not as an
industry on itself but as a market, no clear definition can be found as to what companies should
be included in any research and what companies should not. It is therefore important to
understand that all economical research or statements conducted or expressed under the umbrella
of ‘tourism’ should be approached with caution and an individual scope of the author on tourism
therefore should be included in the paper.
General statements found on tourism like on the employment in the ‘tourism industry’ should be
regarded mainly as a misuse of the statistics in order to convince people of the megalomania of
the tourism industry.
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Tim Smet  301507 Sector Analysis ProjectWinter term 2003
A definition for Hospitality
Some definitions
General
The Oxford English dictionary hospitality is defined as : “the act or practice of being hospitable;
the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors or serng. srat
Accrding to Lashley (2000) the Joint Hospitality industry Congress defines hospitality as ‘The
provision of food and/or drink and/or accommodation away from home’. The Higher Education
Funding Council– England’s Hospitality Review Panel defined hospitality as being ‘ the
provision of food and/or drink and/or accommodation in a service context’, furthermore the
Nottingham group (at a conference held in Nottingham) defined ‘Hsopitality is a
contemporaneous exchange designed to enhance mutuality (well being) for the parties involved
through the provision of food and/or drink and/or accommodation’. Lashley (2000) furthermore
describes these definitions as being the economical oriented definitions and formulates some
interesting social extensions to these definitions which are not relevant in this paper.
King (1995)
King (1995) identifies a difference between private and commercial hospitality, where private is
defined as ‘ acts by individuals towards individuals in a private setting such as the home’ and
commercial hospitality is defined as ‘meals, beverage, lodging and entertainment provided for
profit’. Clearly in an economic research paper one would be looking at the second, commercial,
definition. So according to the King definition we would be looking for a more clear definition of
Commercial hospitality.
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Tim Smet  301507 Sector Analysis ProjectWinter term 2003
King also provides us with four necessary parts of hospitality :
1. A relation between individuals, a hostguest relationship
2. This relation can be commercial or private (in a commercial relation the guest has the
obligation to pay and to behave reasonably, the guest has the power as opposed to private
hospitality where an equality of power is assumed)
3. A key element is having knowledge of what would invoke great pleasure in the guest ( he
paraphrases White (1970) and states that ‘ Arab hospitality in the desert, where to hesitate
to give food before a stranger would shameful’ and ‘Arctic hospitality of the Eskimos,
who place there wives at the disposal of the guest’)
4. Hospitality is a process that includes arrival, which involves greeting and making the
guest feel welcome … and departure.
These parts of hospitality might clarify what hospitality is but again looks at it from a consumer
(market) side and not from the sector perspective.
Angelo and Vladimir
They first of all realize that the question ‘what is hospitality’ is not an easy one. They however
find four different sectors that make up the hospitality industry, namely : lodging, food,
entertainment and travel. This however they recognize as being the same as the definition used by
the US travel data center for tourism, so they shorten down their definition to only lodging and food operations. They give a non exhaustive list2of sub sectors comprised within the hospitality
industry as follows
2Angelo and Vladimir p 28
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Tim Smet  301507 Sector Analysis ProjectWinter term 2003
Lodging operations Food service operations Other operations Allsuite hotels Commercial cafeterias Airlines Casino hotels Education food services Campgrounds Conference hotels Employee food services City clubs Fullservice hotels Fullservice restaurants Country clubs Limitedservice hotels Healthcare Cruise ships Resorts Lodging food service National parks Retirement communities Quickservice restaurants Recreational food service Social caterers This definition is already closer to a supply side definition however the confusion remains as the
list of industries is not a limited list.
Powers
Powers gives a more ethnological definition of what hospitality is stating that ‘hospitality is
derived from the medieval word hospice and therefore means a house of rest to travellers and
pilgrims’. He also states that these type of food and shelter accommodations have common
problems of management but he fails to provide us with a clear definition as to what hospitality
is.
Brymer and Huffman
Accrding to Brymer and Huffman the hospitality industry is ‘an umbrella term used to encompass
the many and varied businesses that cater guests’. This statement indicates that they also
recognise the difficulty in limiting the scope of the hospitality industry.
They however like Angelo and Vladimir find some major segments in the hospitality industry,
namely : ‘food service, lodging, travel and tourism, and meeting and convention planning’. This
would mean that the tourism industry, as we discussed before is not a real industry, would be an
integral part of the hospitality industry.
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Tim Smet  301507 Sector Analysis ProjectWinter term 2003
Ditmer
Ditmer also provides us with an ethnological definition, however he goes back to the Latin verb
hospitare, which means ‘to receive as a guest’. In order to receive people asa guest their needs
should be satisfied, according to Ditmer this means that the guest needs: food, beverage and
lodging or shelter.
He does not like Brymer and Huffman include the tourism industry into the hospitality, and also
leaves the entertainment out of the hospitality definition claiming that this would be a part of
travel and tourism.
The hospitality industry as it does provide its services mainly to travellers, also provides them to
local residents and is therefore not an integral part of the travel industry itself.
Conclusion
Some common characteristics
Although the previous definitions show that there is not such thing as a general definition of the
hospitality industry, it shows that there are some parts common to all definitions. Lodging and
food are included in every definition as being part of the hospitality industry.
Some differences
Is tourism part of hospitality or is it the other way around ? Does entertaining the guests belong to
hospitality or not ? Is hospitality only applicable to people away from home (tourists) or can it be
granted to local residents ?
These things are either unclear or contradict in the foregoing definitions, this makes the defining
of hospitality as a problem as the sectors are not always the same.
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Tim Smet  301507 Sector Analysis ProjectWinter term 2003
Why there is no universal definition for hospitality
According to Brotherton (1999) who conducted a similar type of study the answer the ‘What is
hospitality […] generates a number of varied and interesting responses’(1999:165). He also finds
what we have shown iof hospitality are ‘unclear’. According ton this section that the definitions
him many of the definition’s makers ‘fall into a trap of suggesting that one of the important
features of hospitality is making the guest “feel at home”’(1999:167).
To many different definitions are used according to the need of the authors, some are more
economical in nature, some more sociological, but all are different. Brotherton also suggests that
‘any attempt to define hospitality per se is doomed to failure’, by this meaning that there in no
generally and universally applicable definition of hospitality.
The debate however according to Brotherton (1999) is not over and should continue.
Conclusion
Although the purpose of this research was to provide the reader with definitions of tourism and
hospitality usable for economical research in order to be able to transform economical research
from one to the other, it has not succeeded in doing this. This paper however has shown the
reader that there in no such thing as a tourism industry in the economical sense of the word. It
also showed that the hospitality industry does not so far has a universal definition, but rather has
ad hoc definitions created to serve a certain purpose.
The suggestion would be to carefully investigate the definition of tourism used in each research
that one would like to convert from tourism to hospitality and if none is specified within the work
to rather let it be, since there is a high chance that the research has been conducted with the intent
of supporting a certain point rather than it trying to be academically in its approach.
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Tim Smet  301507 Sector Analysis ProjectWinter term 2003
As to the reader wanting to write an economically inspired work on the hospitality industry the
author would suggest him/her to use great care in selecting a definition and to certainly mention
the used definition within the work. Even better would be to restrict the economically inspired
work to one of the subsectors of hospitality like the hotel sector or the restaurant sector, they
should be far more easily definable.
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