Holland - The History of the Netherlands
156 pages
English

Holland - The History of the Netherlands

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156 pages
English
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Holland, by Thomas Colley GrattanThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it,give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online atwww.gutenberg.netTitle: Holland The History of the NetherlandsAuthor: Thomas Colley GrattanRelease Date: January 3, 2004 [EBook #10583]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HOLLAND ***Produced by Robert J. Hall[Illustration: THE DUKE OF ALVA DEPOSES MARGARET OF PARMA]HOLLANDTHE HISTORY OF THE NETHERLANDSBY THOMAS COLLEY GRATTANWITH A SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER OF RECENT EVENTS BY JULIAN HAWTHORNECONTENTSCHAPTER IFROM THE INVASION OF THE NETHERLANDS BY THE ROMANS TO THE INVASION BY THE SALIAN FRANKSB.C. 50—A.D. 250Extent of the Kingdom—Description of the People—Ancient State of the Low Countries—Of the High Grounds—Contrasted with the present Aspect of the Country—Expedition of Julius Cæsar—The Belgæ—The Menapians—Batavians—Distinguished among the Auxiliaries of Rome—Decrease of national Feeling in Part of the Country—Steady Patriotism of the Frisons and Menapians—Commencement of Civilization—Early Formation of the Dikes—Degeneracy of those who became united to the Romans—Invasion of the Netherlands by the Salian Franks.CHAPTER IIFROM THE SETTLEMENT OF THE FRANKS TO THE SUBJUGATION OF FRIESLAND BY THE FRENCHA.D. 250—800Character of the ...

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Publié le 08 décembre 2010
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Holland, by Thomas Colley Grattan This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: Holland The History of the Netherlands Author: Thomas Colley Grattan Release Date: January 3, 2004 [EBook #10583] Language: English *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HOLLAND *** Produced by Robert J. Hall [Illustration: THE DUKE OF ALVA DEPOSES MARGARET OF PARMA] HOLLAND THE HISTORY OF THE NETHERLANDS BY THOMAS COLLEY GRATTAN WITH A SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER OF RECENT EVENTS BY JULIAN HAWTHORNE CONTENTS CHAPTER I FROM THE INVASION OF THE NETHERLANDS BY THE ROMANS TO THE INVASION BY THE SALIAN FRANKS B.C. 50—A.D. 250 Extent of the Kingdom—Description of the People—Ancient State of the Low Countries—Of the High Grounds— Contrasted with the present Aspect of the Country—Expedition of Julius Cæsar—The Belgæ—The Menapians— Batavians—Distinguished among the Auxiliaries of Rome—Decrease of national Feeling in Part of the Country— Steady Patriotism of the Frisons and Menapians—Commencement of Civilization—Early Formation of the Dikes— Degeneracy of those who became united to the Romans—Invasion of the Netherlands by the Salian Franks. CHAPTER II FROM THE SETTLEMENT OF THE FRANKS TO THE SUBJUGATION OF FRIESLAND BY THE FRENCH A.D. 250—800 Character of the Franks—The Saxon Tribes—Destruction of the Salians by a Saxon Tribe—Julian the Apostate— Victories of Clovis in Gaul—Contrast between the Low Countries and the Provinces of France—State of Friesland— Charles Martell—Friesland converted to Christianity—Finally subdued by France. CHAPTER III FROM THE CONQUEST OF FRIESLAND TO THE FORMATION OF HOLLAND A.D. 800—1000 Commencement of the Feudal System in the Highlands—Flourishing State of the Low Countries—Counts of the Empire —Formation of the Gilden or Trades—Establishment of popular Privileges in Friesland—In what they consisted—Growth of Ecclesiastical Power—Baldwin of Flanders—Created Count—Appearance of the Normans—They ravage the Netherlands—Their Destruction, and final Disappearance—Division of the Empire into Higher and Lower Lorraine— Establishment of the Counts of Lorraine and Hainault—Increasing Power of the Bishops of Liege and Utrecht—Their Jealousy of the Counts; who resist their Encroachments. CHAPTER IV FROM THE FORMATION OF HOLLAND TO THE DEATH OF LOUIS DE MALE A.D. 1018—1384 Origin of Holland—Its first Count—Aggrandizement of Flanders—Its growing Commerce—Fisheries—Manufactures— Formation of the County of Guelders, and of Brabant—State of Friesland—State of the Provinces—The Crusades— Their good Effects on the State of the Netherlands—Decline of the Feudal Power, and Growth of the Influence of the Towns—Great Prosperity of the Country—The Flemings take up Arms against the French—Drive them out of Bruges, and defeat them in the Battle of Courtrai—Popular Success in Brabant—Its Confederation with Flanders—Rebellion of Bruges against the Count, and of Ghent under James d' Artaveldt—His Alliance with England—His Power, and Death— Independence of Flanders—Battle of Roosbeke—Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, obtains the Sovereignty of Flanders. CHAPTER V FROM THE SUCCESSION OF PHILIP THE BOLD TO THE COUNTY OF FLANDERS TO THE DEATH OF PHILIP THE FAIR A.D. 1384—1506 Philip succeeds to the Inheritance of Brabant—Makes War on England as a French Prince, Flanders remaining neuter— Power of the Houses of Burgundy and Bavaria, and Decline of Public Liberty—Union of Holland, Hainault, and Brabant— Jacqueline, Countess of Holland and Hainault—Flies from the Tyranny of her Husband, John of Brabant, and takes Refuge in England—Murder of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy—Accession of his Son, Philip the Good—His Policy—Espouses the Cause of John of Brabant against Jacqueline—Deprives her of Hainault, Holland, and Zealand— Continues his Persecution, and despoils her of her last Possession and Titles—She marries a Gentleman of Zealand, and Dies—Peace or Arras—Dominions of the House of Burgundy equal to the present Extent of the Kingdom of the Netherlands—Rebellion of Ghent—Affairs of Holland and Zealand—Charles the Rash—His Conduct in Holland— Succeeds his Father—Effects of Philip's Reign on the Manners of the People— Louis XI.—Death of Charles, and Succession of Mary—Factions among her Subjects—Marries Maximilian of Austria—Battle of Guinegate—Death of Mary—Maximilian unpopular—Imprisoned by his Subjects—Released—Invades the Netherlands—Succeeds to the Imperial Throne by the Death of his Father—Philip the Fair proclaimed Duke and Count—His wise Administration— Affairs of Friesland—Of Guelders—Charles of Egmont—Death of Philip the Fair. CHAPTER VI FROM THE GOVERNMENT OF MARGARET OF AUSTRIA TO THE ABDICATION OF THE EMPEROR CHARLES V A.D. 1506—1555 Margaret of Austria invested with the Sovereignty—Her Character and Government—Charles, Son of Philip the Fair, created Duke of Brabant and Count of Flanders and Holland—The Reformation—Martin Luther—Persecution of the Reformers—Battle of Pavia—Cession of Utrecht to Charles V.—Peace of Cambray—The Anabaptists' Sedition at Ghent—Expedition against Tunis and Algiers—Charles becomes possessed of Friesland and Guelders—His increasing Severity against the Protestants—His Abdication and Death—Review—Progress of Civilization. CHAPTER VII FROM THE ACCESSION OF PHILIP II. OF SPAIN TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE INQUISITION IN THE NETHERLANDS A.D. 1555—1566 Accession of Philip II.—His Character and Government—His Wars with France, and with the Pope—Peace with the Pope—Battle of St. Quentin—Battle of Gravelines—Peace of Câteau-Cambresis—Death of Mary of England—Philip's Despotism—Establishes a Provisional Government—Convenes the States—General at Ghent—His Minister Granvelle —Goes to Zealand—Embarks for Spain—Prosperity revives— Effects of the Provisional Government—Marguerite of Palma— Character of Granvelle—Viglius de Berlaimont—Departure of the spanish Troops—Clergy—Bishops— National Discontent—Granvelle appointed Cardinal—Edict against Heresy—Popular Indignation— Reformation—State of Brabant—Confederacy against Granvelle— Prince of Orange—Counts Egmont and Horn join the Prince against Granvelle—Granvelle recalled—Council of Trent—Its Decrees received with Reprobation—Decrees against Reformers —Philip's Bigotry—Establishment of the Inquisition—Popular Resistance. CHAPTER VIII COMMENCEMENT OF THE REVOLUTION A.D. 1566 Commencement of the Revolution—Defence of the Prince of Orange—Confederacy of the Nobles—Louis of Nassau—De Brederode—Philip de St. Aldegonde—Assembly of the Council of State—Confederates enter Brussels—Take the Title of G u e u x—Quit Brussels, and disperse in the Provinces—Measures of Government— Growing Power of the Confederates—Progress of the Reformation— Field Preaching—Herman Stricker—Boldness of the Protestants— Peter Dathen—Ambrose Ville—Situation of Antwerp—The Prince repairs to it, and saves it—Meeting of the Confederates at St. Trond—-The Prince of Orange and Count Egmont treat with them— Tyranny of Philip and Moderation of the Spanish Council—Image Breakers—Destruction of the Cathedral, of Antwerp—Terror of Government—Firmness of Viglius—Arbitration between the Court and the People—Concessions made by Government—Restoration of Tranquillity. CHAPTER IX TO THE ADMINISTRATION OF REQUESENS A.D. 1566—1573 Philip's Vindictiveness and Hypocrisy—Progress of Protestantism—Gradual Dissolution of the Conspiracy—Artifices of Philip and the Court to disunite the Protestants—Firmness of the Prince of Orange—Conference at Termonde—Egmont abandons the Patriot Cause—Fatal Effects of his Conduct—Commencement of Hostilities—Siege of Valenciennes— Protestant Synod at Antwerp—Haughty Conduct of the Government—Royalists Repulsed at Bois-le-duc—Battle of Osterweel, and Defeat of the Patriots—Antwerp again saved by the Firmness and Prudence of the Prince of Orange— Capitulation of Valenciennes—Success of the Royalists—Death of De Brederode—New Oath of Allegiance; Refused by the Prince of Orange and others—The Prince resolves on voluntary Banishment, and departs for Germany—His Example is followed by the Lords—Extensive Emigration—Arrival of the Duke of Orleans—Egmont's Humiliation—Alva's Powers —Arrest of Egmont and others—-Alva's first Acts of Tyranny—Council of Blood—Recall of the Government—Alva's Character—He summons the Prince of Orange, who is tried by Contumacy—Horrors committed by Alva—Desolate State of the Country—Trial and Execution of Egmont and Horn—The Prince of Orange raises an Army in Germany, and opens his first Campaign in the Netherlands—Battle of Heiligerlee—Death of Adolphus of Nassau—Battle of Jemminghem—Success and skilful Conduct of Alva—Dispersion of the Prince of Orange's Army—Growth of the naval Power of the Patriots—Inundation in Holland and Friesland—Alva reproached by Philip—Duke of Medina-Celi appointed Governor—Is attacked, and his fleet destroyed by the Patriots—Demands his Recall—Policy of the English Queen, Elizabeth—The Dutch take Brille—General Revolt in Holland and Zealand—New Expedition of the Prince of Orange— Siege of Mons—Success of the Prince—Siege of Haarlem—Of Alkmaer—Removal of Alva—Don Luis Zanega y Requesens appointed Governor-General. CHAPTER X TO THE PACIFICATION OF GHENT A.D. 1573—1576 Character of Requesens—His conciliating Conduct—Renews the War against the States—Siege of Middleburg— Generosity of the Prince of Orange—Naval Victory—State of Flanders—Count Louis of Nassau—Battle of Mookerheyde —Counts Louis and Henry slain—Mutiny of the Spanish Troops—Siege of Leyden—Negotiations for Peace at Breda— The Spaniards take Zuriczee—Requesens dies—The Government devolves on the Council of State—Miserable State of the Country, and Despair of the Patriots—Spanish Mutineers—The States-General are convoked, and the Council arreste
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