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  • exposé
Comparing Micro and Macro Rationality Robert J. MacCoun* *Professor of Public Policy, Richard & Rhoda Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California at Berkeley, 2607 Hearst Ave., Berkeley, CA 94720-7320; voice 510-642-7518; fax 510-643-9657; email . The final version of this essay was published as: MacCoun, R. (2002). Comparing micro and macro rationality.
  • individual judgment
  • initial distribution of opinions into a final group decision
  • probability that the group
  • individual bias
  • social decision scheme
  • meta-analysis
  • meta- analysis
  • scheme
  • group members
  • group of members



Publié par
Nombre de lectures 34
Langue English


1485 – 1660

the Tudor dynasty (1485 – 1603): modern English and a firm sense of England as a nation state emerged
Henry VIII's religious reform temporarily cut England off, politically, artistically, and religiously from the European
th th
the literature which sprang from, or was influenced by, the culture of the English court in the 16 and early 17 cts.
reflected the political and religious inclinations of a ruling élite
geographical discoveries
man and the universe were being explored
great flowering of all arts
the authorised version of the Bible: King James's Bible (1611)
new poetic forms and an interest in ancient poetic forms were brought from Italy
the revival of classical learning, the study of ancient literature and thought which was regarded as the essential
inheritance of modern civilization
the function of poetry was to teach and delight simultaneously

1. the Petrarchan (Italian): the octave – the problem
the sestet – the resolvation
rhyme: abba cde cde
2. the Shakespearean (English): 3 quatrains (appear as one stanza) + the couplet (the solution or the summarized idea);
rhyme abab cdcd efef gg
3. the Spenserian: 3 quatrains + a couplet, same rhyme

THOMAS MORE (1477 – 1535)
• the highest duty of a man was to serve his king
• Utopia: the search for the best possible form of government (an ideal society, communist ideas, personal property
abolished); influenced Robinson Crusoe, Gulliver’s Travels, Brave New World (Huxely), Lord of the Flies (Golding)

SIR PHILIP SIDNEY (1554 – 1586)
• an acute Elizabethan critic of poetry
• a model of a perfect renaissance gentleman and an erudite
th• his writings emerged as crucial to the political, literary and sexual discourses of the late 16 century
• Arcadia (1580): a long prose romance about an ideal place without problems, about love and chivalry, about finding the
perfect reunion with the beloved and the perfect love; with absolute happiness and joy there is no progress; ancient,
medieval and modern sources; contrasts between honour and deception, calmness of mind and discordant passion,
cultivated courtesy and rough wooing, gentility and seduction, ordered ceremonial and violence
• “Astrophil and Stella” (1591): a sonnet sequence describing the development of love of a silent and melancholic star-
lover for a distant star; an extended dialogue with the conventions of the Italian sonneteers and a varied Elizabethan
narrative which, by means of a constantly changing viewpoint, considers the developing conflict between private and
public obligation; Stella the inspirer of poetry, her authority seems to parallel that of the Queen
• “The Defence of Poesie” (1595): poetry has to be taken seriously because it releases the earthbound mind by elevating
and inspiring it; ideas about beauty in literature

THOMAS NASHE (1567 – 1601)
• the initiator of the grotesque, satirical style
• played with a style which experiments with the effects of lexical novelty, violence, and disconnection
• The Anatomy of Absurditie (1589): criticism of contemporary style of writing
• Pierce Pennilesse (1592): the complaint of an impoverished professional writer in search of patronage, who supports the
social system, but regrets that it does not work to his benefit; celebrates eating and drinking
• The Unfortunate Traveller (1594): first-person narration; a set of episodes about a travel to Italy; mixture of genres and
• Both Pierce Pennilesse and The Unfortunate Traveller were seen as species of journalism, picaresque novels and
experiments in realism

SIR WALTER RALEGH (1554 – 1618)
• The Discovery of Guiana (1596): described his trip to Guyana, where he went in search for gold; ~ Utopia
• The History of the World (1614): written during his imprisonment; not only historical but also a literary work; an
extended elegiac reflection on disappointment and defeat
• his poetry is supportive of the Queen-centred courtly culture

EDMUND SPENSER (1552 – 1599)
• next to Shakespeare the greatest man of the Renaissance, the New Poet
1 ‰

• his model was Geoffrey Chaucer
• borrowed the form of the Petrarchan sonnet
• SPENSERIAN STANZA: 8 iambic pentameters + and alexandrine (6 iambic feet) – 9 lines of verse, rhyme ababbcbcc
• “The Shephearde’s Calendar” (1579): 12 pastoral dialogues; a variety of metrical forms
• “Amoretti” (1595): 89 sonnets celebrating his love for Elizabeth Boyle; a story of a lover who is at first rejected, then
accepted but in the end his mistress turns against him again
• “Epithalamion”: a marriage hymn of 23 stanzas of 17 – 19 lines; celebration of the courtship; seeing the mistress not as
an unattainable image of perfection, but as a creature reflecting, and sometimes clouding the glory of her Divine
Creator; “love is the lesson which the Lord us taught”
• “The Faerie Queene” (1596): the image of the eloquent and armour-plated Elizabeth based on a parallel figure from
Ariosto’s Orlando Furioso (imitations of phrases, verbal patterns and knightly images); book 1: HOLINESS, book 2:
TEMPERANCE, book 3: CHASTITY, book 4: FRIENDSHIP, book 5: JUSTICE, book 6: COURTESY, book 7:
MUTABILITY – seven virtues of a good knight

• 154 Sonnets (written in the 1590s, published in 1609): 1 – 126 addressed to a “fair youth” (about time and mortality),
127 – 152 addressed to the “Dark Lady”, the last two give a new twist to the erotic theme by playing with stories of
• Sonnet 18: love superseeds time and is outlasted by poetry
• Sonnet 29: he is in a poor condition but friendship makes him satisfied with himself
• Sonnet 42: agony – a woman deceives him with a friend
• Sonnet 116: true love is not conditioned
• Sonnet 129: lust cannot be avoided
• Sonnet 130: declaring love for his lady not needing to magnify her beauty
• “Venus and Adonis” (1593): a long narrative poem dedicated to the bachelor Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton,
that contrasts the passive male sexuality with the active female one; contrasts of red and white, hot and cold, fire and ice
• “The Rape of Lucrece” (1594): an instructive story of the rape of a virtuous Roman noblewoman by Sextus, son of King
Tarquin; she commits suicide

SIR FRANCIS BACON (1561 – 1626)
• Essayes: statements of fundamental ethic principles; the subjects range from statecraft and social theory to personal
morality and aesthetics; flow of argument, quotation, anecdote, conceit and demonstration; more impersonal and
intellectual than Montaigne's Essais
• The Advancement of Learning (1605): an attempt to draw a distinction between two kinds of truth, a theological Truth
and a scientific Truth; book 1: against learning from religion/politicians, book 2: about views on poetry
• Novum Organum (1620): argues for a new method of scientific thinking, free of prejudices of the past and the received
affectations of the present – the inductive logical reasoning
• The New Atlantis (1624): an anticipation of the Royal society in London

RICHARD HOOKER (1554 – 1600)
• Treatise on the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity: the first major prose work in modern English; the Church is bound to
develop; the Bible is important, but reason should be followed; man should be guided by all the knowledge he possesses

ROBERT BURTON (1577 – 1640)
• The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621): melancholy as a normal state of mind, interested in love and religious melancholy


Queen Elizabeth was the last of the Tudor monarchs; James I was the first of the Stuarts
the Stuart age is marked by a critical, questioning and scientific spirit
a new literary movement, the Metaphysical School of Poetry, was led by John Donne, Ben Johnson, George Herbert,
Richard Crashaw, Henry Vaughan, Andrew Marwell, and Thomas Carew
they rejected the conventional elements of Elizabethan poetry
the new style: compressed, joining seemingly disparate images, paradox, wit, colloquial language, juxtapositions
metaphysical conceits: unusual images (comparison whose ingenuity is more striking than its justness), farfetched
comparisons, joining things that are primarily unlike
T.S. Elliot brought the metaphysical into the centre of attention as poetry really close to modern times (how to join the
spiritual and physical part of human existence)

JOHN DONNE (1573 – 1631)
• a priest; wrote many sermons
• wrote songs, sonnets, satires, epigrams, verse letters, love elegies
• extremely intellectual, difficult to understand
• fond of paradox, witty conceits, imaginative picturing, play of paradoxes
2 ‰

• questions everything, never searches for easy answers
• stresses the interconnection of life and death throughout human existence
• never tries to idealize the objects of his passion
• “Song”: cynical when speaking about love
• “The Apparition”: a frustrated lover is trying to take reveng

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