Inkondlo kaZulu , livre ebook

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The first book of poems published in isiZulu, Inkondlo kaZulu contains superb nature poems and reflections on modern life by the ‘father of Nguni literature’.


Inkondlo kaZulu (Zulu Poems), the first volume of poetry by B.W. Vilakazi, was published in 1935. This was the first book of poems published in isiZulu, and marked the launch of the newly established Bantu (later, African) Treasury Series (published by the University of the Witwatersrand Press), a collection of twenty classic works written between 1935 and 1987 in African indigenous languages. It contains superb nature poems and also reflects Vilakazi’s contact with Western modernity. As both a traditional imbongi (bard) and a forward-looking poet who could fuse Western poetic forms with Zulu izibongo (praise poetry), he used his writings to express his resistance to the appalling injustices of the migrant labour system. By committing to writing in poetic form what had traditionally been conveyed orally from one generation to the next, he preserves for future generations deep philosophical and emotional experiences of Zulu society.

The republication of Inkondlo kaZulu affords the reader the opportunity to reappraise Vilakazi’s intellectual significance and his renown as the ‘father of Nguni literature’ at a time when the need is acutely felt to unshackle ourselves from ethnic boundaries and break the invisible chains of inherited prejudice.


1 NgePhasika

2 Inkelenkele yakwaXhosa

3 Ukhamba lukaSonkomose

4 We moya!

5 Inqomfi

6 Impophoma yeVictoria

7 Woza Nonjinjikazi!

8 Khalani maZulu!

9 Umcabango wasekuseni

10 Sengiyokholwa-ke

11 Cula ngizwe!

12 Ma ngificwa ukufa

13 Ngizw’ ingoma

14 Ithongo lokwazi

15 UShaka kaSenzangakhona

16 Ngomz’omdaladala kaGrout

17 Phezu kwethuna likaShaka

18 Aggrey we-Afrika

19 UNokufa

20 Isenanelo eminyakeni engamashumi mahlanu

21 Wena-ke uyothini?

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Publié par

Date de parution

01 octobre 2021

Nombre de lectures

1

EAN13

9781776145379

Langue

Zulu

INKONDLO KAZULU
The African Treasury Series, published from the 1940s onwards, consists of works written by pioneers of South African literature in African languages. It has provided a voice for the voiceless and celebrated African culture, history and heritage. The reissue of these foundational texts with new introductions supports ongoing efforts to highlight the importance of writing in indigenous languages, and to remember and celebrate these early giants of African literature.
These reissued texts maintain the orthographic and typesetting fidelity of the original editions published by Wits University Press. New introductions to the texts are included, in the original language and in English.
Several years of concerted effort went into restoring this collection to its rightful place in the canon of African literature. Wits University Press took care to be mindful of the major changes in publishing that have occurred since the works were first published, and undertook several initiatives to reissue these texts. A grant was received from the WiSER Mellon African Digital Humanities project in order to produce the new editions.
Several strong supporters of this project were instrumental in advising, working on and providing the solid basis on which the full print and digital availability of these titles could be completed. It is thanks to the tireless efforts of Nhlanhla Maake, Tuelo Gabonewe, Langa Khumalo, Mike Mahase, Njabulo Manyoni, Sabata Mokae, Fran Saunders, Dumisani Sibiya, Pat Tucker, Mpume Zondi and Karen Press.

Published in South Africa by
Wits University Press
1 Jan Smuts Avenue
Johannesburg 2001
www.witspress.co.za
First published by Wits University Press, 1935
Published edition © University of the Witwatersrand, 2021
Introduction © Mpume Zondi, 2021
Cover photograph courtesy of Museum Africa
978-1-77614-065-7 (Paperback)
978-1-77614-536-2 (Web PDF)
978-1-77614-537-9 (EPUB)
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the written permission of the publisher, except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright Act, Act 98 of 1978.
Proofreader and translation of Introduction: Langa Khumalo
Project manager: Fran Saunders and Karen Press
Cover design: Hybrid Creative
Typeset in 10.5 point Plantin
Okuphakathi
Isingeniso
Introduction
1 . NgePhasika
2 . Inkelenkele yakwaXhosa
3 . Ukhamba lukaSonkomose
4 . We moya!
5 . Inqomfi
6 . Impophoma yeVictoria
7 . Woza Nonjinjikazi!
8 . Khalani maZulu!
9 . Umcabango wasekuseni
10. Sengiyokholwa-ke
11 . Cula ngizwe!
12 . Ma ngificwa ukufa
13 . Ngizw’ ingoma
14 . Ithongo lokwazi
15 . UShaka kaSenzangakhona
16 . Ngomz’omdaladala kaGrout
17 . Phezu kwethuna likaShaka
18 . Aggrey we-Afrika
19 . UNokufa
20 . Isenanelo eminyakeni engamashumi mahlanu
21 . Wena-ke uyothini?
Isingeniso
Mpume Zondi
UBenedict Wallet Vilakazi (ophinde adume ngelika-B.W. Vilakazi) wayengumcwaningi, usozilimi, umbhali wamanoveli kanye ne-mbongi. Abamthandayo bamteketisa nge-lokuthi ‘Ngubaba wemibhalo yesiNguni’ (Ntshangase 1995: 1) kanye ‘nomsunguli wezinkondlo zesiZulu zesimanje’ (Ngwenya 1998: 128). Ngonyaka we-1935 uVilakazi washicilela Inkondlo kaZulu , okuyiqoqo lakhe lokuqala lezinkondlo. Leli qoqo eliqukethe izinkondlo ezingamashumi amabili nanye, lashicilelwa ngabashicileli base-University of the Witwatersrand Press ngawo lo nyaka. Ngonyaka we-1944, ngesikhathi kushici-lelwa ushicilelo lwesibili, kwakhishwa izi-nkondlo ezine ezazisoshicilelweni lokuqala okuyilezi: ‘Umkhuleko wesiphoxo’, ‘Leyo ndlu’, ‘Usangithanda’ nethi ‘Leso sitimela kasimi’. Esikhundleni sazo kwafakwa ezinye ezine nokuyilezi: ‘Woza NoNjinjikazi’, ‘Ngizw’ingoma’, ‘ngePhasika’ kanye nethi ‘Ithongo Lokwazi’ (Vilakazi 1944).
Ngonyaka we-1945 iqoqo likaVilakazi lesi-bili lezinkondlo elithi, Amal’ezulu , lashicilelwa ngabase-University of the Witwatersrand Press. Igebe leminyaka elishumi elehlukanisa la maqoqo amabili libalulekile ngokomlando futhi lingeze lashaywa indiva. Kunomehluko okhanyayo phakathi kwezindlela uVilakazi abona ngazo impilo yomhlaba uma ubeka ndawonye iqoqo langowe-1935 nelango-we-1945. Ngesikhathi ebhala iqoqo loku-qala lezinkondlo, wayenguthisha osemncane nothintekayo futhi owayengakaze aphumele ngaphandle kwesifundazwe adabuka kuso, iNatali (manje osekuyiKwaZulu-Natali). Ngesikhathi ebhala izinkondlo eziseqoqweni lesibili, wayeseyimbongi eqoqodile nekho-nondayo. Ukuvela kwakhe ezimweni ze-mpilo yaseGoli kwaba nomphumela wokuthi azinikele ekulweleni ubulungiswa empha-kathini, kanti yena wayengakwenza lokho ngokuba wumkhulumeli wabangakwazi ukuzikhulumela. Yilapho-ke ahlala khona iminyaka eyishumi nantathu waze wazunywa wukufa ngowe-1947. Womabili la maqoqo adingida izindikimba ezisabalulekile ngisho nanamuhla.
UVilakazi wazalwa ngowe-1906 eGrout-ville, eStanger (eseyaziwa ngeKwaDukuza), wafunda imfundo yamabanga aphansi esi-koleni sesonto esisendaweni. Ufunda nje welusa nezinkomo uma sekuphume isikole. KwaDukuza kuqhele ngamakhilomitha acishe abe ngamashumi ayisikhombisa na-nhlanu enyakatho nedolobha eligudle ulwandle, idolobha laseThekwini, bude buduze nje nesigodlo sesilo samaZulu sodumo, iLembe eleqa amanye amalembe, uShaka kaSenzangakhona. Waqhubekela e-St Francis College eMarianhill (nga-sePhayindane) nokuyilapho aphothula khona amabanga aphezulu kanye nokuqe-qeshelwa ubuthisha. Ngemuva kokuthwasela ubuthisha, wafundisa e-St Francis College khona eMarianhill ngokuhamba kwesikhathi wafundisa e-St Mary’s Seminary, eXobho. Abazali bakhe, uMshini noLeah, ba-bemethe ngoBhambatha kaMshini ngenhloso yokuthakasela ubuqhawe beNkosi uBha-mbatha. Ngemuva kokuthi umndeni wamukele inkolo yamaRoma Akhatholika wabe ese-bhabhadiswa njengoBenedict Wallet, kodwa wasigcina isibongo sakhe sakwaVilakazi nje-ngokudaza kukanina inkani. EMarianhill wasebenza njengonobhala kaFata uBer-nard Huss. Ngemuva kokufunda ngokuse-benza kukaVilakzi nalo mfundisi, uSibusiso Nyembezi (1973) wathi yikho okwakhuthaza uVilakazi ukuthi abe namaphupho amakhulu ngempilo yakhe. Ngakho-ke akumanga-lisi ukuthi ngonyaka we-1934 wathola iziqu ze-Bachelor of Arts eNyuvesi YaseNingizimu Afrika. Le mpumelelo yamkhuthaza ukuthi aqhubeke nokufunda ngasese waze wathola iziqu zobuDokotela Emibhalweni YesiZulu – waba ngumuntu wokuqala omnyama ukufi-nyelela kuleli qhuzu.
EGoli uVilakazi wahlangabezana nemfundo yaseNtshonalanga ngesikhathi eqashwa njengomsizi wabafundi ( tutor ) ku-Mnyango Wezifundo ZaBantu (manje ose-kuwuMnyango Wezilimi Zesintu) eNyuvesi YaseWitwatersrand. Imiqingo esekulondolo-zweni ikhombisa ukuthi okuyisona sodwa isi-zathu sokuthi wayengaqashwa njengolekshara ngokugcwele yingoba wayemnyama ngebala; abanye abazali abamhlophe – nohulumeni uqobo – babephikisana nenhloko yo-mnyango, uSolwazi C.M. Doke, ukuthi iqashe umuntu omnyama ukuthi afundise abafundi abamhlophe (Ntshangase 1995). UVilakazi waphinda wahlangabezana nokukhula kwe-zimboni eGoli; zombili lezi zindikimba ziya-bonakala zigqamile ezinkondlweni zakhe. Inkondlo kaZulu ikakhulukazi, yiyo edi-ngida ngokuhlangana kukaVilakazi nempilo yaseNtshonalanga. UTrevor Cope (1984), ephawula ngomthelela waseNtshonalanga ezinkondlweni zikaVilakazi, uthi umthelela wezinkondlo zoThando zesiNgisi uyabo-nakala eningini lezinkondlo eziseqoqweni Inkondlo kaZulu . Ucaphuna izinkondlo ezi-fana nethi ‘We Moya!’ kanye nethi ‘Inqomfi’ njengezizama ukulingisela isitayela salezi zinkondlo.
Ngemuva kokufunda izinkondlo zika-Vilakazi zokuqala ezingamashumi amabili nanye eqoqweni langonyaka we-1935, isi-fundiswa saseXhoseni, usopolitiki nengci-thabuthopho, u-D.D.T. Jabavu, waphawula ngokuthi Inkondlo kaZulu iyincwadi enhle kakhulu yezinkondlo zesiZulu futhi ifinyelela ezingeni lokuba yincwadi engasoze yabuna (Jabavu 1943). Umhlaziyi uMary Louise Pratt (ecashunwe nguNgwenya 2008: 50) uncoma uVilakazi ngokuqondisisa ukuthi abukho ububi bokuhlanganisa amasiko amabili. Ukuhlangana kwamasiko amabili kwenza kwaba lula kuVilakazi ukukho-mbisa injula yezinkondlo zakhe ngokwebo-leka kwelinye isiko ngenhloso yokucebisa elakhe. Ngesikhathi esifanayo, akazange ayi-shaye indiva indabuko yakubo ngemuva koku-dibana nemithelela eyahlukene. Ukugxila kwakhe kule ndabuko yakwaNtu ‘kukho-mbisa iso lakhe elihlolisisayo ngokungqubu-zana okukhona ekuqinisekiseni ukuqhubeka nokonga amasiko akwaZulu ngesikhathi eveza namasu amasha ahambisana nesikhathi esisha’ (Ngwenya 1998: 129). UDavid Atwell (2005: 81) uthi uVilakazi akazange awubukele phansi umlando, kodwa wayeyindoda ewuhu-musha ngeso lobuciko bakhe. UVilakazi ukhombisa ukuba nengqondo evulekile ngo-kuthi angashiyi abafundi bemibhalo yakhe bezibuza ngalokhu ‘kuhlangana’ kwamasiko. OkaMphephethe ukhombisa ukuqaphela isimo esimzungezile, ephepheni lakhe elisi-hloko sithi, ‘ The Conception and Development of Poetry in Zulu ’ ubhala athi:
Akukho ukungabaza ukuthi ubunkondlo baseNtshonalanga buzoba nomthelela kuzo zonke izinkondlo zaBantu ngoba yonke imiqondo emisha yesikhathi sethu ifika ngezinga laseYurophu. Kodwa-ke kukhona into okungafanele isixhophe sibhekile. Uma silandela isakhiwo, ukuhlobisa kwa-ngaphandle okunobunkondlo obuhehayo kwamaciko aseNtshonalanga, lokho akusho ukuthi sesifake phakathi ezinkondlweni zethu ngisho nomoya wabo. Uma sise-benzisa izitanza zaseNtshonalanga kanye nokusamculo, sikusebenzisa njengeziqu-kathi noma izithuthi zezithombe-magama zezinkondlo zethu, zivezwe njengendlela esizibona nesiziqonda ngayo izinkondlo. (Vilakazi 1938: 127)
Ngokubhala izinkondlo zakhe phansi, uVil-akazi, onkondlo zakhe zizinze kubuciko bomlomo obuthembele ekukhumbuleni kwengqondo, wayesevele esevezela abokufika izindaba zase-Afrika, ubuhlakani bakhona kanye nempilo ekwenza kuvuleleke kwaba-ningi nakumhlaba ngobubanzi. Lokhu kwa-kuyindlela yokucebisa okubuye kubonakale njengokuhlangana kwamasiko. Ngokuqopha isiko lakhe esebenzisa

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