Midi-Plus-Rap.Etude Pilote anglais web

icon

16

pages

icon

Slovak

icon

Documents

Écrit par

Publié par

Le téléchargement nécessite un accès à la bibliothèque YouScribe Tout savoir sur nos offres

icon

16

pages

icon

Slovak

icon

Ebook

Le téléchargement nécessite un accès à la bibliothèque YouScribe Tout savoir sur nos offres

PILOT STUDY REPORTONBRIGHTWAVESDenis Boucher, Ph.D.November 20, 2000_________________________________1100, boul. de la Rive-Sud, suite 120St-Romuald (Quebec) G6W 5M6Tel.: 418-834-1177 Fax : 418-834-5596iTable of Contents1. Introduction .................................................................................................. 11.1 Objectives of the pilot study........................................................................................... 12. Methodology 12.1 The subjects.................................................................................................................... 12.2 Progress of the Pilot Study............................................................................................. 22.3 Selection Criteria............................................................................................................ 22.4 Measurements.3A) The Sleep Diary...................................................................................................... 3B) Sleep Impairment Index (SII)................................................................................. 3C) Beliefs and Attitudes About Sleep (BAS).............................................................. 4D) Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) .................................................................. 43. Description of the Results ............................................................................ 43.1 The subjects........ ...
Voir Alternate Text

Publié par

Nombre de lectures

40

Langue

Slovak

PILOT STUDY REPORT ON BRIGHTWAVES
Denis Boucher, Ph.D.
November 20, 2000
_________________________________ 1100, boul. de la Rive-Sud, suite 120 St-Romuald (Quebec) G6W 5M6 Tel.: 418-834-1177 Fax : 418-834-5596
Table of Contents
i
1.Introduction..................................................................................................1 1.1 Objectives of the pilot study........................................................................................... 1 2.Methodology..................................................................................................1 2.1 The subjects .................................................................................................................... 1 2.2 Progress of the Pilot Study ............................................................................................. 2 2.3 Selection Criteria............................................................................................................ 2 2.4 Measurements................................................................................................................. 3 A) The Sleep Diary...................................................................................................... 3 B) Sleep Impairment Index (SII)................................................................................. 3 C) Beliefs and Attitudes About Sleep (BAS).............................................................. 4 D) Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) .................................................................. 4 3. Description of the Results ............................................................................ 4 3.1 The subjects .................................................................................................................... 5 3.2 Medication taken ............................................................................................................ 5 3.3 Sleep diary...................................................................................................................... 5 3.3.1 Total nap time......................................................................................................... 5 3.3.2 Time period between going to bed and turning out the lights................................ 6 3.3.3 Time period between the last awakening and rising .............................................. 6 3.3.4 Sleep- onset time .................................................................................................... 7 3.3.5 Number of sleep interruptions ................................................................................ 7 3.3.6 Duration of sleep interruptions............................................................................... 8 3.3.7 Sleep duration......................................................................................................... 8 3.3.8 Feeling rested upon rising ...................................................................................... 9 3.3.9Sleep evaluation.....................................................................................................9 3.4Sleep Impairment Index...............................................................................................10 3.5 Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep......................................................... 10 3.6 Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) ........................................................................ 11 4. Interpretation of the results....................................................................... 12 5. REFERENCES ........................................................................................... 14
Tableaux Table 1 Medication taken ........................................................................................................ 5 Table 2 Means and standard deviations of total naptime ........................................................ 6 Table 3 Means and standard deviations of the time period before turning out the lights ....... 6 Table 4 Means and standard deviations of the time period between the last awakening and rising................................................................................................................................... 6 Tableau 5 Feeling rested upon rising ...................................................................................... 9 Table6 Means and standard deviations for sleep evaluation ................................................ 10 Table 7 Means and standard deviations for the Sleep Impairment Index ............................. 10 Figures Figure 1 Evolution of sleep-onset time..................................................................................... 7 Figure 2 Number of sleep interruptions per night..................................................................... 8 Figure 3 Duration of sleep interruptions per night ................................................................... 8 Figure 4 Duration of a night's sleep .......................................................................................... 9 Figure 5 Evolution of subjects' beliefs and attitudes .............................................................. 11 Figure 6 Perceived evolution of sleep quality ........................................................................ 12
1. Introduction
1
Midi-Plus Consultants Inc. gave our company, Whittom & Boucher Promotion de la Santé inc., the mandate to develop a research protocol with the objective of evaluating the influence of BrightWaves - a process generating infra sounds that correspond to brain waves - on the sleep quality of people with sleep disorders. Midi-Plus Consultants Inc. first used the protocol in the framework of a pilot study. The personnel of Midi-Plus Consultants directed the collection of data for this pilot study and our company acted as advisors throughout the study. Whittom & Boucher Promotion de la Santé Inc. also carried out a statistical analysis of the collected data and wrote the present report. It is also important to emphasize that in order to respect the intellectual property of our client, we cannot divulge the nature of the product, BrightWaves, in detail in this report. 1.1 Objectives of the pilot study
This pilot study consisted of two objectives: 1)  To evaluate the influence of BrightWaves on the sleep quality of people with sleep disorders. 2)  To determine if it would be useful to proceed with an experimental study of this product.
2.1 The subjects
2. Methodology
The subjects were recruited through an advertisement, which appeared in the Journal de Quebec on May 22, 2000, and a through a television report on the program «Vision Québec» on TQS. Thirty-four people in all (16 men and 18 women) showed an interest in participating in the study by contacting the Midi-Plus Consultants inc. team. All of these people were accepted and became part of the study. Three people (three women) dropped out of the study before the experimental phase began. One of them had not been able to obtain a CD player, another moved without informing the Midi-Plus Consultants team, and one person found the procedure too complex. Therefore, thirty people began the study; however, five people (four men and one woman) abandoned the study during the pretest phase. Three of them did not return any of the documents and two people had variable schedules (day, evening and night), making it impossible for them to follow the required procedure. Also, six people (four men and two women) withdrew as soon as the treatment phase began. Two of these people mentioned that they were too busy to complete the study, one person stated problems with his sound system, one person had an accident, one person withdrew because of illness and one person withdrew
2
following the death of a loved one. Finally, one person's (a woman's) data was sent by mail as requested, but did not reach the Midi-Plus Consultants team.
Thus, the analysis of the data was based on 19 subjects (8 men and 11 women). The subjects were not remunerated for participating in this study. 2.2 Progress of the Pilot Study
The study took place from May 25 to mid-July of the year 2000. Following the advertisement for the study, the people who called the Midi-Plus Consultants team were given information on the study at the time of this first contact by telephone.
Subsequently, a package was sent to each subject, containing information and documents related to the pre-test phase such as: a letter explaining the procedure to follow, an agreement of non-disclosure, a consent form, a general information form, a pre-stamped envelope, questionnaires related to the evaluation of sleep quality and sleep problems, and the sleep diary. The sleep diary covered a two-week period. The subjects were asked to fill out and return the group of documents as soon as possible, with the exception of the sleep diary, using the pre-stamped envelope provided in the package. In the days preceding the end of the two-week pre-test period corresponding to the sleep diary, the subjects received a new package containing: a new sleep diary, the CD BrightWaves, a letter explaining the procedure to follow (in which the subjects were invited to return their first sleep diary as soon as possible), as well as a pre-stamped envelope. The subjects were asked to use the compact disc for a period of one month, following the instructions provided with the CD. A few days before the end of the treatment phase, the subjects received a final package, which included the questionnaires to fill out, a letter explaining the procedure to follow and a pre-stamped envelope in which to return the documents.
The pre-test period lasted for two weeks. From the beginning, the subjects were asked to fill out the following questionnaires: Index of Sleep Quality, Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep, and the Sleep Impairment Index. As well, for a period of two full weeks, the subjects were asked to fill out their sleep diaries.
Once the pre-test period was completed, the experimental treatment phase began. Subjects were to listen to the laser disc BrightWaves each night for the whole night for a period of one month. During this period, the subjects were to fill out their sleep diaries. At the end of the experimental period, the subjects were asked to fill out the questionnaires again: Sleep Quality Index, Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep, and the Sleep Impairment Index.
For the duration of the pilot study, the experimenters had no voluntary contact with the subjects, so as not to influence the results of the study. However, they had to remain available to the subjects in order to answer their questions if necessary. 2.3 Selection Criteria No selection criteria were used for the purposes of this pilot study. Thus, the subjects were accepted independently of age, medical status, medications consumed and the perception of the product.
3
2.4 Measurements With regard to this pilot study, the measurement instruments used were those most currently employed in the study of sleep disorders. However, it must be noted that no physiological measurements were taken, nor were any diagnoses made regarding the nature of any sleep disorders. A)  The Sleep Diary Given the subjective nature of the experience of insomnia, the representation and the description of it by the person who lives through the experience are considered to be very important measurements for evaluating the changes in sleep that occur over a specific period of time. This instrument is presented in the form of a grid to fill out daily upon waking, and it provides a subjective estimation of sleep parameters. A two-week basic data recording period is suggested in order to obtain a valid and reliable profile of sleep problems and to minimize reactivity effects related to the self-evaluation method (Lacks & Morin, 1992). The grid allows the collection of the following information: 1)  Nap, 2)  Medication, 3)  Bed time, 4)  Sleep onset time, 5)  Number of night awakenings, 6)  Duration of night awakenings, 7)  Wake time, 8)  Rise time, 9)  Physical state upon rising 10)  Sleep quality The form used was that of Morin (1997). B)  Sleep Impairment Index (SII) This questionnaire is composed of 7 items which are used to evaluate quantitatively how much the person is affected by insomnia and to judge the results of a treatment (Morin & Azrin, 1985, cited in Mimeault, 1997). The subject responds to the questionnaire with the help of a Likert-type scale (0=None to 4=Extreme) for the following components: 1)  Severity of delayed sleep onset, 2)  Satisfaction with actual sleep, 3)  Interference of insomnia with daytime functioning , 4)  Perception of the consequences of insomnia 5)  Level of distress caused by insomnia. This information is significant in terms of the person's perception of his sleep difficulties. The total score falls between 0 and 28, for which a high score indicates an elevated perception of the sleep impairment. The French version of the Sleep Impairment Index (Blais, Gendron, Mimeault & Morin, 1996, cited in Mimeault, 1997) offers good internal consistence with a Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.88 and a test-retest fidelity coefficient of 0.65 for a two-week interval.
4
C)  Beliefs and Attitudes About Sleep (BAS) This 30 statement questionnaire evaluates perceptions about sleep (Morin, 1993). Five theoretic constructions concerning strategies favoring sleep are studied: 1)  Attribution error and amplification of the consequences of insomnia, 2)  Control and predictability of sleep, 3)  Unrealistic expectations about sleep requirements, 4)  Preconceived ideas about the causes of sleep and 5) Mistaken concepts on ways of promoting sleep. For each statement, the person evaluates how much he agrees or disagrees with the help of an analogic scale (0=stongly disagree to 10= strongly agree). A high score on this questionnaire is associated with a high level of dysfunctional beliefs. The French version of the instrument offers very good internal consistence (0.90 alpha) and test-retest reliability of 0.72 for a two-week period. D)  Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) This index (Buysse, Reynolds, Monk, Berman & Kupfer, 1989, cited in Mimeault, 1997) evaluates the quality of sleep and its disturbances in the course of the past month. It consists of 19 self-evaluation questions, measuring seven components: 1)  Subjective sleep quality, 2)  Sleep latency, 3)  Sleep duration, 4)  Habitual sleep efficiency, 5)  Sleep disturbances, 6)  Use of sleeping medications, 7)  Daytime dysfunction. The quotation takes place on a scale of 4 points (0 = no difficulty to 3 = severe difficulties). The seven components of the score add up to give a score varying between 0 and 21 points. A result of more than 5 indicates that the subject suffers from severe sleep difficulties for at least two of the seven components or that he experiences moderate difficulties in more than three. The psychometric data of the French version demonstrates an acceptable internal homogeneity (alpha = 0.88) and a test-retest reliability of 0.62 (Blais et al., 1996).
3. Description of the Results The objectives of this pilot study were: 1) To evaluate the influence of BrightWaves on the sleep quality of people with sleep disorders. 2)  To determine if it would be useful to proceed with an experimental study of this product.
3.1 The subjects
5
The analysis of the results was based on 19 subjects (8 men and 11 women) aged between 24 and 74 years old, the average age being 45.1 years old ( ± 11.2).
3.2 Medication taken
Eight people took medication during the progress of this study. Table 1 shows the number of people using a particular medication during the pre-test period and during the period using BrightWaves. Table 1 Medication taken
Medication taken Number of people taking Number of people taking medication during the pre-test medication during the phase treatment phase Empracet 1 0 Duricef 1 1 Antibiotic (name of the 0 1 medication unknown) Provera 1 1 Premarin 2 2 Zithromax 0 1 Serax 1 1 Gen-Temazepam 1 1 Syntroid 1 1 Percocet 1 0 Tegretol 1 1 Zocor 1 1 Lectopam 1 1 Wellbutrin 1 1 Actifed 0 1
3.3 Sleep diary
The different variables of the sleep diary were analyzed through a Student t-test or sign test, according to the norms of the test, thus comparing the results obtained in the pre-test phase to those obtained after the last two weeks of the post-test phase (use of BrightWaves). 3.3.1 Total nap time
6
The results of the analyses demonstrated that the use of BrightWaves did not influence total naptime in a significant way (p > 0.05). Thus, naptime remained similar for all of the subjects throughout the experiment. Table 2 presents the means and standard deviations of total naptime. Table 2 Means and standard deviations of total naptime Variable Pre-test Post-test (minutes per day) (minutes per day) Total nap time 8.20 ± 12.90 10.24 ± 23.73
3.3.2 Time period between going to bed and turning out the lights The analysis of the results based on the period of time between going to bed and turning out the lights revealed the use of BrightWaves brought about no significant change (p > 0.05) in this respect. Table 3 presents the means and standard deviations of the time periods before turning out the lights in the pre-test and post-test phases. Table 3 Means and standard deviations of the time period before turning out the lights Variable Pre-test (minutes) Time period between going to 20.29 ± 34.47 bed and turning out the lights
Post-test (minutes) 7.30 ± 10.72
3.3.3 Time period between the last awakening and rising The results of the analyses on the time period between the last awakening and rising did not allow the demonstration of a significant influence (p > 0.05) after the use of BrightWaves. So, the time period between the last awakening and rising remained unchanged. To this effect, Table 4 presents the means and standard deviations of the pre-test and post-test results for this variable. Table 4 Means and standard deviations of the time period between the last awakening and rising
Variable Pre-test (minutes) Time between the last 32.37 ± 39 awakening and rising
Post-test (minutes) 33.37 ± 37
7
3.3.4 Sleep- onset time The results of the analysis based on sleep-onset time demonstrated that after using BrightWaves, the subjects reported taking less time to fall asleep, thus going from an average falling asleep period of 27.95 ( ± 21.80) minutes in the pre-test phase to 14.93 ( ± 9.02) minutes in the post-test phase (p < 0.002). This represents a significant decrease of 46.6% in sleep-onset time. Figure 1 presents the evolution of sleep onset time in the pretest and post-test phases. Figure 1 Evolution of sleep-onset time
0:36 0:28 0:21 0:14 0:07 0:00
Pretest
Sleep-onset time (h.mm)
46.6 %
Post-test
3.3.5 Number of sleep interruptions The analysis of the results related to the number of sleep interruptions revealed that the use of BrightWaves produced a significant decrease (p < 0.03) of the number of sleep interruptions per night, thus going from 1.68 ( ± 0.89) interruption before using BrightWaves to 1.31 ( ± 0.91) interruption after using it. This corresponds to a reduction in sleep interruptions in the order of 22%. Figure 2 presents the evolution of this variable over time.
Figure 2 Number of sleep interruptions per night Number of sleep interruptions per night
2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00
Pre-test
22 %
Post-test
8
3.3.6 Duration of sleep interruptions The analysis of the results also showed a significant decrease (p < 0.002) in the duration of sleep interruptions per night after using BrightWaves. The duration of the interruptions went from an average of 28.32 ( ± 21.69) minutes before the use of BrightWaves (pre-test phase) to an average of 16.46 ( ± 13.36) minutes following its use, corresponding to a decrease of close to 42%. Figure 3 shows the evolution of the duration of sleep interruptions over time. Figure 3 Duration of sleep interruptions per night Duration of sleep interruptions 30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0
3.3.7 Sleep duration
Pre-test
42%
Post-test
6.3 %
9
The analysis of the results based on the duration of a night's sleep revealed a significant improvement (p < 0.03) in the amount of sleep per night following the use of BrightWaves, going from 7.14 ( ± 1.09) hours per night in the pre-test phase to 7.59 ( ± 1.16) hours per night. This represents and improvement of 6.3% for sleep duration. Figure 4 shows the change observed in the duration of a night's sleep. Figure 4 Duration of a night's sleep Duration of a night's sleep 7.70 7.60 7.50 Ho urs 7.40 7.30 7.20 7.10 7.00 6.90
Pre-test
Post-test
3.3.8 Feeling rested upon rising According to a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (exhausted) to 5 (rested), the subjects evaluated how rested they felt upon rising. The analysis of the results demonstrated a significant improvement (p < 0.002) in the feeling of being rested upon rising, going from an average of 2.94 in the pre-test phase to 3.30 in the post-test phase, which corresponds to a 12.2% improvement. Table 5 shows the means and standard deviations of the feeling of being rested upon rising in the pre-test and post-test phases. Tableau 5 Feeling rested upon rising
Variable Pre-test Feeling rested upon rising 2.94 ± 0.60
Post-test 3.30 ± 0.69
3.3.9 Sleep evaluation The subjects' evaluation of their own sleep was made by means of a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (very agitated) to 5(very deep). The analysis of the results showed a significant improvement in terms of the perception of the preceding night's depth of sleep. This value went from 3.10 in the pre-test phase to 3.41 following the use of BrightWaves, thus
Voir Alternate Text
  • Univers Univers
  • Ebooks Ebooks
  • Livres audio Livres audio
  • Presse Presse
  • Podcasts Podcasts
  • BD BD
  • Documents Documents
Alternate Text