Geodynamic evolution and petroleum system of Abu Gharadig basin, north western desert, Egypt [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Mohammed Awad Ahmed Ahmed

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GEODYNAMIC EVOLUTION AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM OF ABU GHARADIG BASIN, NORTH WESTERN DESERT, EGYPT Von der Fakultät für Georessourcen und Materialtechnik der Rheinisch-Westfälischen Technischen Hochschule Aachen zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines DOKTORS DER NATURWISSENSCHAFTEN genehmigte Dissertation vorgelegt von M. Sc. Applied Geophysics MOHAMMED AWAD AHMED AHMED MOHAMMED AWAD AHMED AHMED AUS MANSOURA, ÄGYPTEN BERICHTER: UNIV.-PROF. DR. RER. NAT. RALF LITTKE PROF. DR. RER. NAT. DR. H. C. DIETRICH WELTE Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 11. November 2008 Diese Dissertation ist auf den Internetseiten der Hochschulbibliothek online verfügbar DEDICATION GRATEFULLY DEDICATED TO MY WIFE, MY SON “YAHIA” AND MY DAUGHTER “NADA” WWHHOOSSEE EENNCCOOUURRAAGGEEMMEENNTTSS IINNSSPPIIRREEDD MMEE!! Mohammed Awad AhmedGeodynamic Evolution And Petroleum System Of Abu Gharadig Basin, Egypt2008 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The scholarship to pursue a Ph.D degree at RWTH-Aachen University and the German language course at Goethe Institute-Mannheim was granted by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).
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01 janvier 2008

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GEODYNAMIC EVOLUTION AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM OF ABU GHARADIG
BASIN, NORTH WESTERN DESERT, EGYPT





Von der Fakultät für Georessourcen und Materialtechnik
der Rheinisch-Westfälischen Technischen Hochschule Aachen
zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines
DOKTORS DER NATURWISSENSCHAFTEN
genehmigte Dissertation


vorgelegt von
M. Sc. Applied Geophysics




MOHAMMED AWAD AHMED AHMED MOHAMMED AWAD AHMED AHMED
AUS MANSOURA, ÄGYPTEN




BERICHTER: UNIV.-PROF. DR. RER. NAT. RALF LITTKE
PROF. DR. RER. NAT. DR. H. C. DIETRICH WELTE



Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 11. November 2008

Diese Dissertation ist auf den Internetseiten der Hochschulbibliothek online verfügbar


























































DEDICATION















GRATEFULLY DEDICATED
TO MY WIFE, MY SON “YAHIA” AND MY DAUGHTER “NADA”
WWHHOOSSEE EENNCCOOUURRAAGGEEMMEENNTTSS IINNSSPPIIRREEDD MMEE!!
Mohammed Awad Ahmed⎪Geodynamic Evolution And Petroleum System Of Abu Gharadig Basin, Egypt⎪2008
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The scholarship to pursue a Ph.D degree at RWTH-Aachen University and the German language
course at Goethe Institute-Mannheim was granted by the German Academic Exchange Service
(DAAD). First I would like to thank (DAAD) for giving me the possibility to cooperate with RWTH-
Aachen University in petroleum research and to gain lifetime experiences while I stayed in Aachen.
Perhaps the most significant contribution was by Prof Dr. Ralf Littke, Head of the Institute of
Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal (LEK), RWTH-Aachen University. His unflagging
efforts to improve readability, assistance with writing, theoretical aspects of the geochemical
investigations and basin modeling, and his suggestions concerning the content were of great help. In
addition, his encouragement, commitment to accuracy, with a difficult and often tedious task, does
not pass unnoticed. I have learned a great deal from him about how to express the concepts in a clear
and logical manner, and made a major contribution refining this work, so he deserves special thanks.
I equally thank Dr. Jan Schwarzbauer, Head of the Organic Geochemistry Laboratory at (LEK), and
Dr. Bernd Krooss, Head of the Petrophysics Laboratory at (LEK), who introduced various aspects of
organic geochemistry to me, a very exciting subject that never got my attention before. Co-operation
and technical assistance from my fellow-colleagues at (LEK) is gratefully acknowledged. I saved lots
of time because I received administrative support and help by (LEK)-secretariat staff, Mrs. Dorit
Kanellis and Mrs. Renate Wuropoulos, to handle the administrative subjects. Of course, I will
always remember the fruitful and scientific atmosphere that I experienced at the institute.
I would like to take this opportunity to express my grateful thanks to the managerial, technical and
secretarial staffs of IES for their assistance and support throughout the research program described
here. This work is a testimony to their professionalism and technical excellence.
I wish to extend my gratitude to the Egyptian General Petroleum Cooperation (EGPC), and the BADR
EL-DIN Petroleum Company (BAPETCO) for their approval and permission to use the material of this
study. This research and its preparation was influenced by the cumulative experience of Prof. Dr.
Fouad Shaaban, who pointed me in the right direction about this interesting subject.
I am grateful to my father Mr. Awad Ahmed, who taught me to cherish excellence. I express
explicitly my appreciation to a special person, my spouse Mrs. A. Makkia, who alternatively
threatened me with dire consequences to make me complete this research. Without her affectionate
support, completion of this work would not have been possible.






Prof. Dr. Ralf Littke⎪Acknowledgments⎪iv RWTH-Aachen University⎪Geodynamic Evolution And Petroleum System Of Abu Gharadig Basin, Egypt⎪2008
ABSTRACT
Abu Gharadig basin is a generally complex geological structure composed of pull-apart grabens. It was
actively subsiding since the Paleozoic with a downwarp initiated since Carboniferous time and
continued throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous. The strongest downwarp was during the
Maastrichtian when a thick Khoman section was deposited. To improve the understanding of the
geodynamic evolution and the hydrocarbon potential of Abu Gharadig basin the aim of this work was
to provide a better coverage of generation, migration, and accumulation of hydrocarbons and
multivariable processes that occur during the long basin history by the application of Petroleum
System Modeling. Applying basin modeling makes it possible to evaluate the four dimensional controls
on source, reservoir and seal rock distribution, the master tectonic mechanisms, as well as source rock
maturation, migration and trap formation. Petroleum potential therefore is influenced not only by the
complex distribution of source, seal and reservoir rocks, but also by the effects of burial, uplift and
erosion, which all undergo rapid variations in time and space.
The integration of the well logging interpretation with the available geochemical data of the
sedimentary units led to the construction of 1D and 2D basin models to evaluate the thermal history
of the sedimentary sequence. With the results of the 1D basin modeling, a zone favorable for the
generation of hydrocarbon from proposed source rocks was defined based on the deposition and the
thickness of the overburden rocks and the timing of the generation and migration of the generated
hydrocarbons. Additionally, 1D basin modeling was mainly applied for the estimation of the generated
and expelled amounts of petroleum, while the reservoir characterization was done with a detailed
interpretation of well logging data using software called “Interactive Petrophysics”. The evaluation of
the results of vitrinite reflectance measurements for different wells in the basin was performed to
obtain calibration data for 1D basin modeling. In this context, the influence of temperature on organic
matter had to be evaluated. Maturity data also allowed calculating paleo-temperatures for the time of
maximum burial or maximum temperatures. Thus, the amount of erosion was achieved. A heat flow
history was assumed with high heat flows occurring during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous times in
conjunction with the rifting taking place at this time.
In all 1D models, the present-day heat flow is in accordance with temperature data and corrected
bottom hole temperatures from wells investigated. Best accordance between measured and calculated
2present-day temperatures was achieved with present-day heat flows in the range of 43-49 mW/m .
Lowest present-day heat flow values were modeled for BED 3-3 well (due to rapid sedimentation or
deep-seated basement) and highest values for well BED 2-1 well (the basement at shallower depth).
The results of the 1D simulations show the differences in burial, thermal and maturity history for the
principle tectonic events.
Much of the oil generated by source rocks never reaches a reservoir. It remains disseminated
throughout the source rock matrix, and is dispersed along secondary migration pathways. The small
reserves are probably a reflection of limited trap volume as well as inefficient migration focusing.
Small fields are presumably a result of post-charge tilting and spillage from once larger accumulations.
The reservoirs based on well-calibrated 1D model experienced more than 80°C since Late Cretaceous
time that retreated the biodegradation effect and suggests a thermodynamically stable crude oil
Institute Of Geology And Geochemistry Of Petroleum And Coal⎪Abstract⎪v Mohammed Awad Ahmed⎪Geodynamic Evolution And Petroleum System Of Abu Gharadig Basin, Egypt⎪2008
without any possibility to secondary cracking gas generation. There is no indication of bacterial
degradation, as shown in the n-alkane distribution diagram and the thermal history of the reservoir
intervals.
The timing and location of the generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons was directly controlled by
the resulting thermal history, while the subsequent migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons and
mineral-bearing fluids was significantly influenced by the structural history. Differences in hydrocarbon
phase (oil and gas accumulation) productivity in Cretaceous-reservoired petroleum systems of the Abu
Gharadig Basin appear to be related to migration and entrapment style and post-charge destructive
processes. Across-fault seals often limit trapping effectiveness, because of higher-amplitude structures
and greater fault displacements with more frequent across-fault juxtaposition of reservoir against
younger sands.
However, geochemical

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