Geo- and biodynamic evolution at the northern margin of Gondwana during late Silurian to early Devonian time (Hazro area, SE Turkey) [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Oliver Kranendonck

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Geo- and biodynamic evolution at the northern margin of Gondwana during Late Silurian to Early Devonian time (Hazro Area, SE Turkey) Von der Fakultät für Georessourcen und Materialtechnik der Rheinisch-Westfälischen Technischen Hochschule Aachen zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines Doktors der Naturwissenschaften genehmigte Dissertation vorgelegt von Diplom-Geologe Oliver Kranendonck aus Neuwied Berichter: Universitätsprofessor Peter A. Kukla, Ph.D. Universitätsprofessor Dr. rer. nat. M. Namık Yalçın Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 23.07.2004 Diese Dissertation ist auf den Internetseiten der Hochschulbibliothek online verfügbar Zusätzlich erschienen in: Schriften des Forschungszentrums Jülich Reihe Umwelt / Environment Band / Volume 49 ISBN 3-89336-359-9 Like every other branch of natural science founded on observation, we observe that the great mixed masses of the earth’s crust are arranged in natural groups, and that the groups succeed in regular order. In describing each group, we follow the methods of natural history, whether we describe the animal species or their organic content.
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Publié le

01 janvier 2004

Nombre de lectures

47

Langue

English

Poids de l'ouvrage

36 Mo





Geo- and biodynamic evolution
at the northern margin of Gondwana
during Late Silurian to Early Devonian time
(Hazro Area, SE Turkey)





Von der Fakultät für Georessourcen und Materialtechnik der
Rheinisch-Westfälischen Technischen Hochschule Aachen

zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines
Doktors der Naturwissenschaften

genehmigte Dissertation



vorgelegt von
Diplom-Geologe

Oliver Kranendonck

aus Neuwied






Berichter: Universitätsprofessor Peter A. Kukla, Ph.D.
Universitätsprofessor Dr. rer. nat. M. Namık Yalçın


Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 23.07.2004

Diese Dissertation ist auf den Internetseiten der Hochschulbibliothek online verfügbar












































Zusätzlich erschienen in:
Schriften des Forschungszentrums Jülich
Reihe Umwelt / Environment Band / Volume 49

ISBN 3-89336-359-9



















Like every other branch of natural science founded
on observation, we observe that the great mixed
masses of the earth’s crust are arranged in natural
groups, and that the groups succeed in regular
order. In describing each group, we follow the
methods of natural history, whether we describe
the animal species or their organic content.

Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873)





































































ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The development and editing of this dissertation has been complex and trying, but overall exciting,
instructive and fun. The study would not have been possible without the aid and support of many people
who gave their valuable time, skills and enthusiasm.

In first place I would like to thank my supervisor Prof. Peter Kukla, chair and director of the Geological
Institute at Aachen University for his encouragement and persistent readiness to guide me during the past
years. I would like to thank Namık Yalçın, Professor of Petroleum Geology and Geochemistry at the
University of Istanbul, Turkey for his assistance and supervision. Beside his field experience and
excellent knowledge of the geology of SE Turkey he impressed me by his kindness and helpfulness. Very
special thanks are due to Dr. Ulrich Mann, head of the Organic Geochemistry research group at the
Institute of Sedimentary Systems (ICG-V), Research Centre Jülich who initiated this research project and
has always provided me with constructive criticism and advice, which I am deeply grateful for.

Many more people have contributed to this thesis in one way or another. I have really enjoyed the time
together with all my past and present colleagues at the Institute of Sedimentary Systems (ICG-V),
Research Centre Jülich. I am particularly grateful to Drs. Rainer G. Schaefer, Harald S. Poelchau, Heinz
Vos and Thomas Fischer for all fruitful discussions and for reviewing divers parts of the manuscript.
Helmut Willsch, Ulrich Disko, Franz Leistner, Willi Benders, Anneliese Richter, Karlheinz Nogai and
Wolfgang Lüdtke are thanked for their assistance with all types of technical and analytical problems – at
all times.

I would also like to thank Dr. Carola Pickhardt and Wolfgang Reichert (Central Division of Analytical
Chemistry, Research Centre Jülich) for elemental analysis and for the x-ray diffraction data presented in
this work. Thanks to the team of Prof. Brooks B. Ellwood at the Louisiana State University at Baton
Rouge for the magnetic susceptibility measurements. My gratitude also goes to Mrs. Brigitte Wienen
(Geological Institute at Aachen University), who provided me with excellent thin-sections.

Special mention goes to Dr. Rainer Brocke (Research Institute Senckenberg, Frankfurt/Main), who
introduced me to the world of palynomorphs and with whom I had a lively interchange of ideas during
our trips to Turkey.

Without the co-operation of the Turkish Petroleum Corporation (TPAO) Research Centre, it would have
been impossible to carry out this thesis. Therefore, many thanks to my turkish colleagues Dr. Cengiz
Soylu, Nihat Bozdo ğan and Dr. Tayfun Erten for realisation of the field trips and sample campaigns. I
really enjoyed the great hospitality. I also thank the State Museum of National History in Lviv (National
Academy of Sciences of Ukraine), namely Dr. Danylo Drygant for his co-operation and for guiding
Ulrich Herten and me to the Silurian/Devonian key section in Podolia.
I

Many thanks are also due my fellow PhD students Antje Armstroff, Marina Kloppisch, Ulrich Herten and
Suryendu Dutta. I am very grateful to Uli´s VW Golf Diesel, which never let us down during our
“sampling adventure” in Poland and in the Ukraine.

As part of the “Silurian/Devonian-Boundary Project” within the research focus programme “Evolution of
the system Earth during the Upper Paleozoic as reflected by sedimentary geochemistry, SPP 1045” this
work received financial support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). The Research Centre
Jülich provided financial support during the third year.

My mother and father have constantly supported me for 33 years and I want to thank them for everything.
Finally, but most importantly, my wife Andrea and our wonderful daughters Hannah and Malin deserve
my warmest appreciation. It is their patience, understanding, encouragement, distraction, and help that
gave me the strength to finish this work.























II
ABSTRACT

A global literature survey of 24 worldwide occurring Silurian/Devonian boundary sites and a subsequent
organic geochemical evaluation of eight of these locations from Turkey, Morocco, Ukraine, Poland as
well as from the stratotype section in the Czech Republic revealed that the organic matter of sediments
from the Hazro area (SE Turkey) exhibits a comparatively low thermal stage equivalent to 0.53% R . r
Only minor diagenetic effects as well as the outstanding preservation and low thermal maturity of the
organic matter provided a combined sedimentological and organic geochemical approach to Upper
Silurian/Lower Devonian sediments from the Dada ş Formation (SE Turkey) in order to reconstruct the
ancient depositional environment, its changes and the associated biotic response through time.

Ludlovian through Lochkovian strata of SE Turkey are well exposed with a thickness of about 140m in
the northwestern part of the broadly eroded Hazro Anticline, located 75 kilometres northeast of the city of
Diyarbakır. The prevailing fine-grained siliciclastic and calcareous sediments were deposited within a
marine shoreline environment that belonged to a pericontinental shelf platform adjacent to the northern
margin of Gondwana. Over approximately two million years, an overall oxic environment evolved twice
from (1) offshore storm affected mid to outer shelf through (2) offshore transition or inner shelf to (3) a
storm and tide affected shoreface zone, indicating two superimposed progradational processes in the
th 3 5range of the 5 order (10 – 10 years) cyclicity. Sediment provenance studies reveal that the detrital
influx was invariably sourced from high silicic parent rocks of the Mardin-Kahta uplift region, which was
situated approximately 100 kilometres south of the study area.

Depositional processes in the outer shelf environment (1) took place under low energy conditions which
led to the accumulation of very fine silt-sized muds settling out of a uniform suspension. Occasionally,
the sea floor was affected by storm driven currents, transporting coarse silts and brachiopod shells from a
shallower environment into the offshore zone. Relatively high sedimentation rates hindered disturbance of
the sea floor by benthic organisms and led to the accumulation of diverse and excellently preserved
palynomorphs which originated mainly from phyto- and zooplankton. The occurrence of numerous algal
fragments (phycomata of the genus Tasmanites) in the transition from the outer to the inner shelf zone
documents a period of high bioproductivity. Due to the gradual drop of relative sea level, the sea floor
was subjected to more frequent disruptive storms within the inner shelf zone (2). Partly turbulent
depositional

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