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Six years of excavations in Tell F3 have uncovered several occupation phases belonging to the middle of the 2nd millennium BC, Failaka period 3B (c. 1600 BC). Though the material culture of Dilmun was heavily influenced by South Mesopotamia, this was a period where Dilmun regained its former importance after the economic and political collapse around 1700 BC, perhaps leading up to a final conquest by the Sealand Dynasty.
The end stages of the development of Dilmun stamp seals are documented, e.g. the first find of a Style III Dilmun seal in a safe period 3B context. The renaissance in stamp seal Style III is paralleled in stone vessels decorated in the Failaka Figurative Style.
Flemming Højlund: Former Head of Oriental Department at Moesgaard Museum, Denmark; directed excavations in Bahrain, Qatar and lately on Failaka Island in Kuwait (2008-2017); published numerous articles and monographs on Arabian Gulf archaeology; and organized exhibitions on the history and culture of the Gulf at Moesgaard Museum, at the Bahrain National Museum and in Abu Dhabi.
Anna Hilton: Educated at the Carsten Niebuhr Institute of University of Copenhagen and excavated extensively in the Near East, lately (2014-2019) as Field Director on Failaka. Published a monograph on the stone vessels found during the Danish excavations 1958-1963 at Tell F3 and F6 on Failaka, Kuwait.
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Date de parution

11 mai 2022

Nombre de lectures

0

EAN13

9788793423756

Langue

English

Poids de l'ouvrage

38 Mo

Tell F3 on Failaka Island KuwaitiDanish Excavations 20122017
by Flemming Højlund & Anna Hilton
Tell F3 on Failaka Island
1
2
Tell F3 on Failaka Island Kuwaiti-Danish Excavations 2012-2017
by Flemming Højlund & Anna Hilton
with contributions by Ann Andersson, Jesper Eidem, Karol Juchniewicz, Steffen T. Laursen, Holly Pittman and Helle Strehle
Jutland Archaeological Society Moesgaard Museum, Denmark National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters, Kuwait
3
Tell F3 on Failaka Island Kuwaiti-Danish Excavations 2012-2017
© The authors 
ISBN978-87-93423-75-6}
Jutland Archaeological Society Publications vol. 116
Edition:Femmîng Højund Design:Jens Nygaard
Cover:Louîse Hîmar
Drawings:Ann Andersson, Héène Davîd-Cuny, Anna Hîton, Femmîng Højund,
Guenever Bjerre Thaarup, Phîne Wîborg Photos:Hamîd A-Mutaîrî, Jonatan Rose Andersen, Ann Andersson, Héène Davîd-Cuny,Anna Hîton, Hîary MacDonad, Rune Sorîa, Hee Strehe, Phîne Wîborg, Lîsa YeomansDigitizing plans and sections:Jonatan Rose Andersen, Anna Hîton, Sîmon Harrîtz English revision:Sharon E. Rhodes
Printed by:Assrîya Prîntîng Press
Published by the Kuwait National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters in cooperation with Jutland Archaeological Society and Moesgaard Museum
Distributed by Aarhus University Press (www.unipress.dk)
4
4.2.Dîmun and other stamp seasby F. Højund .......................................................................................................
4.6.Beadsby A. Andersson .....................................................................................................................................................
3.4.Phase , Perîod B..........................................................................................................................................................
6.Radîocarbon chronoogyby S.T. Laursen & F. Højund ...........................................................................................
Notes .............................................................................................................................................................................................
4.9.Other indsby F. Højund ..............................................................................................................................................
1. Introductîonby F. Højlund..........................................................................................................................................................
3.Trenches BE-CD, Perîods , B and A, stratîgraphy and archîtecture ....................................... by A. Hîton and F. Højund
4.3.Mesopotamîan cyînder seasby H. Pîttman ........................................................................................................
Appendîx . Survey for burîasby K. Juchnîewîcz & F. Højund..............................................................................
7.Summary and concusîonsby F. Højund ..................................................................................................................
Bîbîography............................................................................................................................................................................
4.7.Hard stone.................................................................................................................................................by A. Hîton 
3.5.Phase , Perîod A.........................................................................................................................................................
Appendîx . At the foot of Te F.........................................................................by K. Juchnîewîcz & F. Højund 
5.Correatîon wîth the tempe courtyardby F. Højund .....................................................................................
5
4.Trenches BE-CD, inds and datîng............................................................................................................................
4.4.Cuneîform înscrîbed tabetby J. Eîdem ................................................................................................................
4.5.Soft stone vesses...................................................................................................................................by A. Hîton 
Contents
3.3.Phase , Perîod B..........................................................................................................................................................
2.1.Trench BD, stratîgraphy and archîtecture.........................................................................................................
2.2.Trench BC, stratîgraphy and archîtecture.........................................................................................................
2. Trenches BD and BC, Perîod Aby A. Hîton, A. Andersson & F. Højund .........................................................
2.3.Fînds and datîng.............................................................................................................................................................
3.2.Phase , Perîod B..........................................................................................................................................................
3.6.Phase , Perîod A and post-A.............................................................................................................................
4.1.Potteryby F. Højund .........................................................................................................................................................
3.1.Phase , Perîod .............................................................................................................................................................
Appendîx . Hook and îneby H. Strehe .......................................................................................................................
4.8.Copperby F. Højund .......................................................................................................................................................
2013 2017
2012
N
5m
1958 1963
Fig. 1.Aerîa photo of Te F wîth Sheîkh Ahmad’s House and îmmedîatey to the south of thîs the buîdîngs uncovered durîng the - excavatîons and the reied trench excavated în . To the east are the prîvate houses and the tempe courtyard uncovered în - and restored în the s ().
6
1.Introduction
by Femmîng Højund
Durîng the2008-2012 Kuwaîtî-Danîsh excavatîons în Te F6 on the îsand of Faîaka, specîa emphasîs was paced on retrîevîng carbon sampes în order to pro-duce a radîocarbon-based revîsîon of the reatîve chro-noogy of Faîaka’s Bronze Age settements (Højund & Abu-Laban 2016 ig. 5). The programme was successfu wîth respect to the Ur III settement (Te F6-Phase 1, c. 2100 BC) and the maîn perîod of the Dîmun cîvîîza-tîon on Faîaka, Faîaka Perîods 1-2 (Te F6-Phases 2-5), coverîng the perîod from c. 1900-1700 BC; to a certaîn extent ît was aso successfu wîth respect to Faîaka Perîods 3B and 4A (Te F6-Phases 6-7), c. 1600-1100 BC (Heînemeîer & Højund 2016 igs. 1157-1158). Unfortunatey, no remaîns from Faîaka Perîod 3A were procured from Te F6 durîng the 2008-2012 cam-paîgns. Accordîngy, în 2012 we decîded to make a sma excavatîon în Te F3 (igs. 1-3)—în an area where a row of houses datîng to Perîod 3A was expected to contînue—în order to coect charcoa sampes for radîocarbon datîng. It was noted that, în thîs area, the ayers coverîng the Perîod 3A deposîts contaîned a good dea of Perîod 3B pottery. These rubbîsh ayers soped down the te from the north în such a way as to ead us to beîeve that a reguar settement beongîng to thîs perîod was to be found to the north. The 1958-1963 excavatîons în Te F3 reveaed a tem-pe courtyard datîng to Perîod 3B, but no ordînary housîng from thîs perîod was found. As thîs perîod încreasîngy appeared to be one of extraordînary înterest în a wîder Guf-Mesopotamîa settîng (Hîton 2014. Højund & Abu-Laban 2016. Laursen 2017), ît was agreed, în cooperatîon wîth the Antîquîtîes Authorîtîes în Kuwaît, to contînueThe Kuwaîtî-Danîsh Archaeoog-îca Mîssîon to Faîakaand to dîrect a new programme of excavatîon to the part of Te F3 în whîch a Perîod 3B occupatîon was antîcîpated. Durîng ive excavatîon campaîgns, 2013-2017, an 2 approxîmatey 100 m area în Te F3, îmmedîatey south of Sheîkh Ahmad’s House (ig. 1), was excavated, reveaîng three phases of occupatîon datîng to Perîod 3B and addîng sîgnîicant, new evîdence from thîs perîod (ig. 50).
We are gratefu for the generous support, inancîa and otherwîse, we receîved from the Secretary Generas of theKuwaît Natîona Councî for Cuture, Arts and Let-ters, Mr Aî Hussaîn A-Youha and hîs successor Mr Kame A-Abdu Jaî, Assîstant Secretary Genera, Mr Shehab A.H. Shehab and Dîrector of Museums and Antîquîtîes, Dr Sutan Duîsh. The irst exporatory excavatîon în Te F3 în the th th 2012 seasonasted from October 18 to November 15 . It was carrîed out by Anna Hîton and Ann Anders-son, assîsted by sîx Egyptîan abourers (Højund & Abu-Laban 2013). It took pace at the same tîme as the ast excavatîon season în Te F6 (Højund & Abu-La-ban 2016 p. 9). th The2013 seasonasted from October 13 to Decem-th ber 8 . The team consîsted of Hamîd A-Mutaîrî, Taa A-Sae’d, Mustafa A-Ansarî and Taro Redha from the Kuwaît Natîona Museum and Femmîng Højund (Head of Mîssîon), Karo Juchnîewîcz (Fîed Dîrector), Anna Hîton, Lîsa Yeomans, Ann Andersson, Phîne Wîborg, Jonatan Rose Andersen, Hee Strehe, and Sarah Cox from the Moesgaard Museum, as we as twenty Egyptîan abourers (Højund & Juchnîewîcz 2014). th The2014 seasonto Decem-asted from October 16 rd ber 3.The team consîsted of Taa A-Sae’d, Taro Redha, Anwar A-Tamîmî and Hamîd A-Mutaîrî from the Kuwaît Natîona Museum and Femmîng Højund (Head of Mîssîon), Anna Hîton (Fîed Dîrector), Jona-tan Rose Andersen, Phîne Wîborg, Hee Strehe, and Danîe Frandsen from the Moesgaard Museum, as we as tweve Egyptîan abourers (Højund & Hîton 2015). th The2015 seasonto Decem-asted from October 15 nd ber 2 . The team consîsted of Taa A-Sae’d, Anwar A-Tamîmî and Hamîd A-Mutaîrî from the Kuwaît Natîona Museum, and Femmîng Højund (Head of Mîssîon), Anna Hîton (Fîed Dîrector), Lîsa Yeomans, Tune Causen, Ann Andersson, Aîysha Abu-Laban, Hee Strehe, Guenever Bjerre Thaarup and Rune Sorîa from the Moesgaard Museum, as we as nîne Egyptîan abourers (Højund & Hîton 2016).
7
N
domestic houses
Tell F3
temple yard
Tell F4
Fig. 2.Map of the ancîent word around Faîaka Isand. The coasta regîon of Mesopotamîa accordîng to Steînkeer ( ig. ).
”Palace”
Tell F6
Tell F5
0
Main Temple
Fig. 3.Map of the archaeoogîca area on the southwest corner of Faîaka Isand wîth Tes F, F, F and F.
8
50 m
NE Temple
100
th The2016 seasonto Decem-from October 15  asted st ber 1 . The team consîsted of Taa A-Sae’d, Anwar A-Tamîmî, Muhammad Fahed and Hamîd A-Mutaîrî from the Kuwaît Natîona Museum, and Femmîng Højund (Head of Mîssîon), Anna Hîton (Fîed Dîrec-tor), Aexander Østrup Jensen, Louîse Boch Pedersen, Ann Andersson, Hee Strehe, and Rune Sorîa from the Moesgaard Museum, as we as nîne Egyptîan abourers (Højund & Hîton 2017). th The2017 seasonasted from October 15 to Decem-st ber 1 . The team consîsted of Taa A-Sae’d, Anwar A-Tamîmî, Muhammad Fahed, Nawaf Arasheedî and Hamîd A-Mutaîrî from the Kuwaît Natîona Museum, and Femmîng Højund (Head of Mîssîon), Anna Hîton (Fîed Dîrector), Aexander Østrup Jensen, Louîse Boch Pedersen, Ann Andersson, Marî Gravgaard, Jonathan Rose Andersen, Guenever Bjerre Thaarup and Rune Sorîa from the Moesgaard Museum, as we as ten Egyptîan abourers (Højund & Hîton 2018). The excavatîon seasons were foowed by two study th seasons. The2018 seasonfrom November 10 asted st to December 1 . The team consîsted of Taa A-Sae’d, Nawaf Arasheedî, and Hamîd A-Mutaîrî from the Kuwaît Natîona Museum, and Femmîng Højund (Head of Mîssîon), Chrîstoffer P. Hagequîst (Fîed Dîrector), Ann Andersson, Guenever Bjerre Thaarup, and Hee Strehe from the Moesgaard Museum, as we as sîx Egyptîan abourers. In addîtîon to prepar-îng the prevîous excavatîons în Te F3 for pubîcatîon, a sma excavatîon of a new tempe patform was car-rîed out în the northeastern margîn of Te F6 (ig. 3) (Højund & Hagequîst 2019). th The2019 seasonasted from October 15 to Novem-th ber 29 . The team consîsted of Taa A-Sae’d, Hamîd A-Mutaîrî, Nawaf Arasheedî from the Kuwaît Natîona Museum, and Femmîng Højund (Head of Mîssîon), Anna Hîton, Ann Andersson, Phîne Wîborg and Hee Strehe from the Moesgaard Museum.
Durîng each excavatîon season our team was quar-tered în theFaîaka Research Statîonocated îmmedî-atey to the east of the ancîent tes, and thîs contînued to be an eficîent pace from whîch to work thanks to our hepfu and generous coeagues and hosts în Kuwaît. We are aso gratefu for the support of our French neîghbours, Mathîde Geîn, Juîe Bonnérîc and theîr teams who were excavatîng the Heenîstîc Te F5 and the eary Chrîstîan settement at A Qusur. The vertîca measurîng system used în the 2012-2017 excavatîons în Te F3 was the same as that used în the 1958-1963 excavatîons. Vertîca measurements were then taken în reatîon to a reference poînt on top of the te, whîch was assîgned the arbîtrary vaue of 10.00, în reatîon to a datum îne approxîmatey 2.90 m beow sea eve. Durîng the 2012-2017 excavatîons a dressed, stone bock next to a ow tabe în House 6, room 2 was seected as datum (Kjærum and Højund 2013 igs. 45 and 49, p. 41). The upper surface of thîs stone bock îs în eve 6.98 m accordîng to the 1958-1963 system, and a the eves taken în the 2012-2017 excavatîons reate to thîs poînt wîthîn the same system. Survey pans empoy a north-orîented coordînate system. The objects found durîng the excavatîon were reg-îstered under a number consîstîng of three parts: the name of the trench, the number of the excavated ayer of thîs trench, and the number of the object wîthîn thîs trench. Thus, în BE12-X738, BE refers to the trench, 12 refers to the twefth ayer of Trench BE, and X738 refers to the object found wîthîn ayer 12 of Trench BE. The numbers of the excavated ayers în a trench shoud not be confused wîth the numbers of the ayers în the sectîon drawîngs (igs. 5, 12-13 and 106-112). Thîs voume has beneitted from the constructîve scrutîny of Steffen T. Laursen and one anonymous revîewer. Heene Agerskov Rose, Zentrum für Ba-tîsche und Skandînavîsche Archäoogîe, îs warmy thanked for hep wîth the Bayesîan mode presented în Chapter 6; any errors or omîssîons are, however, entîrey the responsîbîîty of the authors.
9
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