Executive Summary
7 pages

Executive Summary


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  • fiche de synthèse - matière potentielle : augusto lopez
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Executive Summary AUGUSTO LOPEZ-CLAROS, World Economic Forum The global economy has been transformed in recent years by the fall of international barriers to the flow of goods, services, capital and labor, and a marked acceleration in the pace of technological and scientific progress. Technological advances have created new opportunities for businesses against the background of an increasingly complex global economy, while reductions in the cost of transport and communication are making location less important, spurring companies to move operations to lower cost environments.
  • nigeria 101 3.45 83 gambia 102 3.43 109 cambodia 103 3.39 111 tanzania 104 3.39 105 benin 105 3.37 106 paraguay
  • costa rica 51 4.08 52 4.26 52 4.25 44 3.74 croatia 52 4.07 44 4.43 68 4.11 47 3.68 cyprus
  • republic 91 3.22 79 3.72 99 2.72 ecuador 97 3.14 82 3.63 105 2.65 egypt
  • herzegovina 78 4.24 106 3.10 96 2.50 45 4.75 38 6.63 botswana
  • south africa 45 4.36 40 cyprus 46 4.36 41 greece 47 4.33 47 poland 48 4.30 43 bahrain 49 4.28 50 indonesia 50 4.26 69 croatia 51 4.26 64 jordan
  • tobago 63 4.49 85 3.41 70 3.29 38 4.88 64 6.39 tunisia
  • malawi 117 3.07 114 mali 118 3.02 115 zimbabwe 119 3.01 110 ethiopia 120 2.99 116 mozambique 121 2.94 112 timor-leste
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Nombre de lectures 27
Langue English


Georgia Performance Standards Fine Arts Grades 68 Visual Arts Introduction
The Middle School Grades 68 Visual Arts Standards are designed so that they can be compacted to serve a brief course of instruction or they may be expanded for delivery to a semester or longer. While the Visual Arts can make a significant contributionto a child’s continuing cognitive and emotional growth,not all students take art at the middle school level.The art teacher may have students for one term or multiple terms.Middle school art teachers must adapt to a wide range of abilities ina single classroom. To meet the needs of a wide range of students, art should be taught by a certifiedvisual arts specialist with trainingin curriculum and pedagogy.
Art is an important means of selfexpression, selfreflection, and the creationof personal identity. The Georgia Performance Standardsfor Visual Art builds opportunities for students to develop in affective, academic, and social ways through the explorations of visual media in their own art making andincreasingly rigorous inquiry into art history, contemporaryart makingand cultural cof the students’ technical skills and higherontexts. The standards guide developmentorder thinking. Aestheticunderstanding, imagination, creativity, problemsolving, artistic skills and knowledge, historicaland cultural context, criticalanalysis, and connections to other disciplines are important aspects of these standards. Form andcontent cannot be separated.How something is said or done shapes the content of the experience. Personal success stems fromthe care invested in one’s own work and the ability to work cooperatively with others in a dynamic studio setting. Georgia De pa rtment of Educa tion Ka thy Cox,State Superinte ndent of Schools Georgia Performance Standards FineArtsVisual Arts Education June 18, 2009Pa ge1 of7
Georgia Performance Standards Fine Arts GRADE 8VISUAL ARTS MEANING and CREATIVE THINKING The student engages in the creative process, finds and solves problems, and pursues openended inquiry through the production of artworks. The student develops aesthetic understandingthrough the examination of his or her art and the artwork of others (National Standards 2 & 3). Description:develops creativity, criticalthinking, and problem solving skills. The studentThe student engages in aesthetic dialogue,making effort toward constructing meaning as he or she encounters and produces works of art.(Evidence maybe documented through mapping, diagrams, journalkeeping, brainstorming lists, project development, and dialogue.) VA8MC.1 Engagesin the creative process to generate and visualize ideas. a.Uses elements of art and principles of design to expand imagination and develop meaningful ideas. b.Visualizes unique ideas and formulates artistic concepts to expand the imagination using a variety of approaches (e.g., mental and visual imagery, brainstorming lists, visual journals, sketches, art resource collections,discussions). c.to enhance fluency, flexibility, and elaboration in theEngages imagination visualization of ideas. VA8MC.2 Identifies and works to solves problems through authentic engagement (thinking, planning, and experimenting) with art methods and materials, exploring the nature of creativity. a.independently defines and reflects on artistic problems related personalDiscovers and interests. b.of solutions toEmploys multiple problemsolving strategies to develop a variety artistic problem; evaluating the merits of each. c.Engages in openended inquiryand solves artistic problems through discussion and respectful interactionwith peers. d.Explores and invents artistic conventions (e.g., styles, techniques) to connect and express visual ideas. VA8MC.3 Demonstrates howartists create and communicate meaning inartworks. a.Identifies, discusses, and analyzes aspects (e.g., common themes, symbols, values, and/or intentions) found ina varietyof artworks throughspoken, written, or visual presentations. b.purposefully observing, comparing, contrasting, andGathers informationand ideas by analyzing selected art works. c.Studies contemporary and/or historical works of art to determine influences that shaped the developmentof the work. d.Recognizes and evaluates how artists choices (e.g., material selection, techniques, tools, styles, use of visual elements and principles) shape and communicate meaning. Georgia De pa rtment of Educa tion Ka thy Cox,State Superinte ndent of Schools Georgia Performance Standards FineArtsVisual Arts Education June 18, 2009Pa ge2 of7
Georgia Performance Standards Fine Arts VA8MC.4 Participates inaesthetic dialogue about his or her artwork and artwork of others. a.to artisticua l)nd/or visl a,questions. (e.g.responses (verbaona lMakes pers What can I learn from looking at, or “reading” works of art? What roledoes empathy play in art making and viewing? What is the role of care in creating a successful work of art? How can I use the eleme ntsof art and principles of design to commu nicatefe ltmeaning in my work? Howdo my choices as an artist affect my experience increating a work of art? How do my techniques and choices influence the outcome of my work? How do I demonstrate craftsmans hipin my work, and why is that important? Howdo my choices as an artist affect the experie nceof other people when they look at my work? How does art communicate felt meaning to a viewer? How does art affect our spaces and places in which welive and work?) b. Participates in openende ddisc uss ionsof art topics as a respectful member of a group. c. Formulatesand supports a position about a work of art and changes or defends that pos itionafter cons ideringviews of others. d.Reflects on how persona le xperie ncesin community, culture, and the world inform one’s work as an artist.CONTE XTUALUND ERSTA NDIN G The student understands the visua larts inre lationto history and cultures (National Standard4). Des cription:The student recognizes the impact of art throughout histor ydifferent culturesa ndw ithin and how history and culture have influenced art.The student plans for and participates ina variety of activities that promote personal engageme ntin the study of art history and culture.VA8CU. 1D iscovershow the creative process relates to art history.a.Identifies and analyzes universal themes ,symbols ,and ideas from diverse past and present cultures and interprets how factors of time and place (climate ,resources ,ideas ,politics , and technology) influence meaning of artworks. b.ork fromt iga teartists and artwluding technology) to invesUses a variety of resources (inc many cultures and time periods as a source ofins pirat ionand deve lopme ntof their vision. c.tory and cultureons for making art throughout history, how hisRecognizes the varied reas have influenced art, and how art has shaped culture/history. d.Recognizes the unique contributions of past and/or present artists, artperiods and move ments ,inc ludingbut not limited to contemporary/his torica lart forms and Georgia artis ts(e.g. ,Regiona lArt, Folk Art, Cherokee andCreek cultures). e.making.l artfrom art history into personainflue ncesSynthes izes VA8CU. 2Investigates and discovers personal relationship to community, culture, and world through making and studying art. a.styles of visInvestigates how forms andand /orua lmedia arts are found in own community. b.Articula tesideas and universal themes from diverse cultures of the past and present. c.to the community and theReflects uponpers ona lartistic contributions in relations hip world at large. d.matizations, artmaking, drareading, writing, artuss ion,in activities (e.g., discPartic ipates events) that promote personal engageme ntin the study of art history and culture. Georgia De pa rtment of Educa tion Ka thy Cox,State Superinte ndent of Schools Georgia Performance Standards FineArtstionVisual Arts Educa June 18, 2009Pa ge3 of7
Georgia Performance Standards Fine Arts RESPONSE and PRODUCTION The student creates artworks by applying media, techniques, and processes to formulate and express his or her ideas and conceptual understandings (NationalStandard 1). Description:Experiencing the role of the artist, the student applies media, techniques, and processes with sufficient skill, confidence, and sensitivity to carry out personal intentions in artworks. Throughexperience ina range of art processes, use of a varietyof materials, and development of a repertoire of techniques,the student understands the relationship ofprocess, material andtechnique to communicationof ideas.Media/techniques should include, but are not limited to, drawing, painting, sculpture, ceramics, fiber arts, printmaking, and digital.VA8PR.1 Engages in art making process with care and craftsmanship.a.Explores the properties of art materials and various techniques/processes in preparation for art making. b.Works directly with materials in a variety of ways (e.g., intuitive, spontaneous, and free; thoughtfully from sketchbook ideas or carefully considered plans). c.compositions.Uses thumbnail sketches and visual/verbal notes to plan d.Uses tools and materials withcraftsmanship (e.g. withcare ina safe and appropriate manner). e.Intermittently revises projects asneeded throughout the creative process. VA8PR.2 Creates artwork reflecting a range of concepts, ideas, subject matter. a.Uses selected sources for artworks (e.g., direct observation, personal experience, self perception, memory, imagination, fantasy, traditionalevents and/or pop culture). b.Produces increasingly complexoriginal works of art reflecting personal choices and increased technicalskill. c.Develops and uses original visual metaphors inartwork to convey meaning. d.Works directly with materials in a variety of ways (e.g. intuitive, spontaneous and free, thoughtfully fromsketchbook ideas or carefully considered plans). e.Selects specific media and processes to express moods, feelings, themes, or ideas. f.Produces works of art that demonstrate knowledge of various styles of art (e.g., realism, formalism, abstraction). VA8PR.3 Producesan array of twodimensional andthreedimensional artistic processes and techniques usinga varietyof media and technology. a.of skills in drawing (e.g., observational, illusion of form, tonalDevelops a variety rendering, perspective. scale drawing) to convey meaning and idea. b.Produces original twodimensional artworks using a variety of media. c.Examines, explores, and demonstrates understanding of basic color theory to create visual effects andcommunicate ideas. d.aUses technology to produce original works of art (e.g., digital photo montage on personally or socially compelling theme). e.as clay,Develops threedimensionalartworks from materials suchpapiermache, plaster, wood, wire, found objects and/or combinations of materials. Georgia De pa rtment of Educa tion Ka thy Cox,State Superinte ndent of Schools Georgia Performance Standards FineArtstionVisual Arts Educa June 18, 2009Pa ge4 of7
Georgia Performance Standards Fine Arts VA8PR.4 Keepsa visual/verbal sketchbook journal, consistently throughout the course, to collect, develop and preserve ideas in order to produce works of art. a.Collects and synthesizes inspirational images, words, thoughts and ideas. b.Maintains instructional information, consults resources, takes, and  makesnotes. c.Practices techniques using a variety of media and tools. d.Composes preliminary sketches and drafts. e.Revises and reflects on journal content (e.g., ideas, sketches, techniques/skills, use of elements/principles, notes, media processes). VA8PR.5 Developsand maintains an individualportfolio of artworks. a.Distinguishes between complete and incomplete artworks. b.Analyses own projects and revises them as needed. c.Compiles a collection of finished works that demonstrate competency in  useof a variety ofmaterials and processes, proficiency in  craftsmanshipand technical skills,and the development of an  emergingpersonal style. ASSESSMENT and REFLECTION The student critiques works of art, reflecting upon and assessing the characteristics and merits of his or her work and the artwork of others(National Standard 5). Description: Thestudent describes andassesses the materials, techniques, and processes used to complete afinished artwork.The student applies art concepts to reflect upon and interpret his or her work and the work of others. The student thoughtfully expresses personal opinion, carefully reasoned viewpoints, and constructive criticism. VA8AR.1 Critiques personalartworks as well as artwork of others using visual and verbal approaches. a.using aAcquires a range of approaches to understand and critique works of art  varietyof thinking strategies. b.Evaluates personal works using multiple criteria. c.work inDevelops skills to provide informational feedback to peers onprocess as a  memberof a community of learners. d.Provides respectful and constructive criticism to peers in formal class critiques. e.Provides respectful and constructive criticism to peers in class critiques. f.Analyzes artworks based on the ways technique, media, and composition are used to communicate meaning. g.Evaluates and explains how selected principles of design and elements of art are used in an artwork to express purpose and how they affect personal response to that artwork. VA8AR.2 Reflects and expands the use of visual language throughoutthe artistic process. a.Reflects on ideas and artistic practice through journalkeeping, essay and other written response. b.art.conveyed in a work ofart to reflect on the meaningUses language of Georgia De pa rtment of Educa tion Ka thy Cox,State Superinte ndent of Schools Georgia Performance Standards FineArtsVisual Arts Education June 18, 2009Pa ge5 of7
Georgia Performance Standards Fine Arts c.and visualUses technology, mappingorganizers during the reflection process d.Justifies verbal responses and/or visual presentations. e.Analyzes and interprets artworks through thoughtful discussion or written response, considering themes, ideas, mood/feeling, and /or intentions presented by the artist. f.Revises artwork based on input from critique process. g.Selfevaluates work in progress and completed work using criteria such as composition, craftsmanship, technical skill, meeting goals of work and progress  overtime. VA8AR.3 Plans and presents appropriate exhibition(s) for work(s) ofart. a.Prepares art for presentation. b.Mounts or mats finished works in a visually pleasing manner. c.statement that communicatesa writtenrk, includingPrepares and exhibits artwo purpose, meaning, and/or intent. CONNECTIONS The student makes connections to other disciplines and theworld around him or her through the visual arts(National Standard 6).Description:The student makes connections from the world of art to other areas of learning and personal endeavor by derivinginspiration for art froma varietyof content areas.The student informs his or her studyand production of art by integrating information and skills fromo ther areas of knowledge and academic disciplines. Through the study and production of art, the student develops visual and verbal literacyand lifeand work skills, including appropriate use and development of technology.VA8C.1 Appliesinformation from other disciplines to enhance the understanding and production of artworks. a.Makes connections to other subjects that help expand art knowledge and /or skills. b.Investigates and articulates how personalbeliefs, cultural traditions, and current social, economic, and political contexts influence the creation and interpretation of artworks. c.Integrates themes, ideas and concepts from varietyinspiration forof disciplines as artwork. VA8C.2 Developsfluency in visualcommunication. a.Reads about, writes, listens to, responds to, speaks about and views information related to art. (Reading Across the Curriculum). b.and skillsIntegrates informationfrom art into other subject areas to support personal learning. c.Identifies and describes trends in the visual arts and communicates how the issues of time, place and culture are reflected in selected works. d.art and /orInterprets visual message of images found in various works of communication media (e.g., video, advertisements, book covers, CD/DVD covers, posters) and produces a visual and/or verbal response. e.Utilizes informational text (online journals, periodicals and other visual/text sources) to communicate art ideas. Georgia De pa rtment of Educa tion Ka thy Cox,State Superinte ndent of Schools Georgia Performance Standards FineArtstionVisual Arts Educa June 18, 2009Pa ge6 of7
Georgia Performance Standards Fine Arts VA8C.3 Expandsknowledge of art as a profession and/or avocation and develops personal life skills through artistic endeavor. a.fine artists, designers,about a variety of art related careers (e.g.,Collects information art educators, architects, animators, photographer, typographer,illustrator). b.requirements necessarIdentifies skills and educationalvisual artsy to pursue professions. c.Develops art skills and habits of mind that support a varietyof important human endeavors (e.g., higherorder thinking, tolerance for ambiguity, judgment in the absence of rule, finding structurein apparent disorder, problemsolving skills, perseverance, creativity, imagination).
Georgia De pa rtment of Educa tion Ka thy Cox,State Superinte ndent of Schools Georgia Performance Standards FineArtsVisual Arts Education June 18, 2009Pa ge7 of7
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