Tax Survival for Canadians
126 pages

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126 pages

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Take control of your money and stand up to the CRA!
At any given time, there are thousands of Canadians involved in disputes with the CRA, for reasons such as owing back taxes or making an honest mistake on a tax return. Whatever the reason is for the dispute, the CRA can be an intimidating organization. If you are currently in a dispute with the CRA or fear you may become involved in one, you can remain feeling powerless or you can choose to educate yourself about the CRA, the audit process, and your rights as a taxpayer; you can gain the confidence to take a stand against the CRA!
When dealing with the CRA, it is advantageous for you to be informed and vigilant of the situation and of all your options. It is important to remember that CRA agents work solely for the CRA; they will not look out for your best interests. By reading Tax Survival for Canadians, you will learn to protect your interests during an audit, how to ask the right questions, and how to utilize the tax laws to work in your favour.
Left unchallenged, the CRA can utilize many methods to collect including asset seizures, liens, garnishes, and court cases, which have the potential to result in prison sentences! Author and Canadian tax lawyer Dale Barrett understands how devastating those consequences can be for you and your family. He has written Tax Survival for Canadians to put the power back into your hands by providing you with the best strategies to deal with the CRA. It covers topics such as ―
· Canadian taxpayer rights
· What to expect during an audit
· Common CRA tactics
· Tax amnesty and the Voluntary Disclosures Program
· Tax liens and salary or wage garnishment
· How to gain taxpayer relief
· ― And more!
Tax Survival is the complete guide for Canadians looking to take control of their situation to reach a fair resolution with the CRA.
Introduction xvii
1 Introducing the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) 1
1. Your Relationship with the CRA 2
1.1 Your rights 2
1.2 Your obligations 2
2. What the CRA Knows about You 3
2.1 Information slips 4
2.2 Information arising from “requests” for information 6
2.3 Information from other countries 6
2.4 Information from financial institutions 6
2.5 Information from tax returns of third parties 7
2.6 Information gathered from third parties about unnamed taxpayers 7
2.7 Information gathered from the taxpayer 8
3. Confidentiality 8
iv Tax Survival for Canadians: Stand up to the CRA
2 Record Keeping: What to Keep and for How Long 13
1. The Importance of Maintaining Complete and Organized Records 15
2. Why the CRA Is Not Fond of the Self-Employed 16
2.1 Employee versus self-employed 17
2.1a Level of control the company has over the worker 18
2.1b Source of tools and equipment required to perform the work 18
2.1c Ability of worker to hire assistance or subcontract the work
to third parties 19
2.1d Degree of financial risk taken by the worker 19
3 Filing Tax Returns 21
1. The Filing Mechanics 21
2. Personal Income Tax Returns (T1 Return) 22
3. Corporate Returns (T2) and Other Business Returns 24
4. Filing Deadlines 24
4.1 Individual income tax return 24
4.2 Partnership information return 25
4.3 T4 and T4A information returns 25
4.4 T5 information return 25
5. Consequences of Not Filing 25
5.1 Interest accrual 26
5.2 Penalty imposition 26
5.3 Fines or imprisonment 26
6. Tax Preparation 26
6.1 Tax software 27
6.2 Using an accountant or a tax return preparer 27
7. Things to Consider When Preparing Your Return 28
7.1 Amended tax returns 28
7.2 Waiver in respect of the normal reassessment period or extended
reassessment period 28
7.3 If you have not filed your return 28
Contents v
4 Business Taxation in Canada 29
1. Business Structures 29
1.1 Sole proprietorship 30
1.1a Tax forms for sole proprietorships 30
1.2 Partnerships 31
1.2a General partnership 31
1.2b Limited partnership 32
1.2c Tax and filing requirements for partnerships 32
1.3 Corporations 33
2. Goods and Services Tax (GST) and Harmonized Sales Tax (HST) 34
3. Payroll Taxes 35
4. Canada Pension Plan (CPP) and Quebec Pension Plan (QPP) 37
5. Employment Insurance (EI) 37
6. Trusts 37
6.1 Testamentary trust 37
6.2 Inter vivos trust 38
5 Tax Audits and Reviews 39
1. Risk Factors That Increase the Odds of Being Audited 41
1.1 Excessive expenses and deductions 42
1.2 Major changes in income or expenses from year-to-year 43
1.3 A business that has repeated losses 43
1.4 Expenses that are not similar to others in your industry 43
1.5 Underreported earnings 44
1.6 Lifestyle analysis 44
1.7 Large charitable donations 45
1.8 Tax shelters and gifting programs 45
1.9 Child-care costs 46
1.10 Home office deductions 46
1.11 Evidence of Criminal Activity 46
1.12 Informant tips 47
vi Tax Survival for Canadians: Stand up to the CRA
1.13 Prior audits 47
1.14 Being self-employed or running a business 47
1.15 Discrepancies between GST or HST returns and income tax returns 48
1.16 Rental income 48
1.17 Shareholder loans 48
1.18 Errors and missing information 48
1.19 Employment expenses 49
1.20 Investment gains and losses 49
2. How the CRA Reviews Your Tax Return 49
2.1 Pre-assessment review program 49
2.2 Processing review program 49
2.3 Matching program 49
2.4 RRSP excess contribution review program 49
3. CRA Special Projects 50
6 What to Expect If You Are Audited 51
1. The Audit Process 51
1.1 Step 1: The audit letter 52
1.2 Step 2: The audit — information gathering and analysis 52
1.3 Step 3: The proposal letter 54
1.4 Step 4: The reassessment 54
2. What the CRA Can Do During an Audit 55
2.1 Requirement for information 55
3. Types of Audits 56
3.1 Correspondence audit 56
3.2 Office audit 56
3.3 Field audit 56
3.4 Lifestyle (net worth) audit 57
4. Preparing for an Audit 59
4.1 Business use of a vehicle 59
4.2 Meals and entertainment 60
Contents vii
4.3 Business use of the home 61
4.4 Lost or missing records 61
7 How to Achieve the Best Results from an Audit 63
1. Know Your Rights 64
2. Don’t Withhold Requested Documents 64
3. Don’t Provide Too Many Documents 64
4. Keep Informed by Reading Materials Published by the CRA 65
5. Audit Tips 65
8 Business Audits 69
1. Being Selected for a Business Audit 69
1.1 Computer-generated lists 69
1.2 Audit projects 69
1.3 Leads 70
1.4 Secondary files 70
2. Types of Business Audits 70
2.1 Corporate tax audit 70
2.2 GST and HST audits 70
2.3 Payroll audit 71
3. Avoiding Delays in a Business Audit 71
9 Notices of Assessment, Penalties, and Interest 73
1. CRA Notices 74
2. Objecting to the Assessment or Reassessment 74
2.1 The objection process 76
3. Collections Action 78
4. Penalties 79
4.1 Late filing penalties of income tax returns 79
4.2 Late filing of GST or HST 79
4.3 Repeat failure to report income penalty 80
4.4 Gross negligence penalties 80
viii Tax Survival for Canadians: Stand up to the CRA
4.5 Penalty for late or insufficient installment payments 81
4.6 Third-party civil penalties 81
4.6a Planner penalty 82
4.6b Preparer penalty 82
5. Interest 82
10 Interest and Penalty Relief 83
1. Taxpayer Relief Program 83
1.1 Extraordinary circumstances 85
1.2 Financial grounds 85
1.3 Actions by the CRA 86
1.4 Ten-year limitation 86
2. Voluntary Disclosures Program (VDP) 86
3. Administrative Appeals 87
4. Remission Orders 91
11 CRA Collections 93
1. Collection Call from the Call Centre 93
2. The Collections Officer 94
3. National Collections Centres 96
4. When the Debt Becomes Collectable 97
5. Trust Debts versus Income Tax Debts 97
6. Objections, Tax Court Appeals, and Collections 97
6.1 Frivolity penalty of 10 percent 99
6.2 Diary promises and good faith 99
6.3 Payment plans 100
6.4 The essentials of life 100
6.5 Creators of high-quality employment 100
7. CRA Collection Powers 100
7.1 Requirement to pay 100
7.1a Bank account seizures 100
Contents ix
7.1b Seizure of trade receivables 101
7.1c Payroll garnishment 101
7.2 Certificates of debt and liens 101
7.3 Asset seizures 102
7.4 Jeopardy orders 102
7.5 Section 227: Director’s liability assessments 102
7.6 Section 160: Assessments for non-arm’s length capital transfer 103
7.7 Notional assessments: GST and payroll 103
7.8 Arbitrary assessment office memo: T1 and T2 103
12 Bankruptcy and Your Taxes 105
1. Discharge of Taxes in Bankruptcy 106
2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Bankruptcy 106
13 Criminal Investigations 109
1. CRA Criminal Investigation Procedures 110
1.1 The start of an investigation 110
1.2 Search warrants 111
1.3 Informants 112
2. Charges Resulting from Criminal Investigations 112
3. Taxpayer Rights during the Criminal Investigation 113
14 Fight the CRA in Court 115
1. The Tax Court of Canada 115
1.1 Informal procedure 118
1.1a Filing a Notice of Appeal 118
1.1b After the Notice of Appeal is filed 120
1.1c Important preparation for the self-represented 120
1.2 General procedure 121
1.2a Filing a Notice of Appeal 121
1.2b After the Notice of Appeal is filed 121
x Tax Survival for Canadians: Stand up to the CRA
2. Federal Court and Federal Court of Appeal 123
2.1 Judicial review 123
2.1a Process to file an application for judicial review 124
15 Tax Schemes 129
1. Tax Protesters 133
16 First Nations Taxation 135
1. Indian Act Exemption for Employment Income Guidelines 136
1.1 Guideline 1 136
1.2 Proration rule 136
1.3 Guideline 2 136
1.4 Guideline 3 136
1.5 Guideline 4 137
2. GST and HST 137
3. First Nations Self-Taxation 137
3.1 Property tax 137
3.2 First Nations sales tax 137
3.3 First Nations goods and services tax 138
3.4 First Nations personal income tax 138
3.5 Provincial-type taxes 138
17 When You Need a Little Help 139
1. Taxpayers’ Ombudsman 139
1.1 Complaint process 140
2. The Authorized Representative 141
2.1 Authorizing a business representative 141
Conclusion 147
Contents xi
1 Notice of Objection 23
2 Request for Taxpayer Relief 88
3 Informal Procedure: Election Limiting Amounts in Issue 117
4 Informal Procedure: Notice of Appeal 119
5 General Procedure: Notice of Appeal 122
6 Judicial Review: Notice of Application 125
7 Judicial Review: Requisition for a Hearing 127
8 Authorizing or Cancelling a Representative 143
9 Business Consent Form 145
1 Informal Procedure vs. General Procedure 116



Publié par
Date de parution 15 mars 2013
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9781770409064
Langue English

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0032€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.


Stand Up to the CRA
Dale Barrett, Tax Lawyer
Self-Counsel Press
(a division of)
International Self-Counsel Press Ltd.
USA Canada

Copyright © 2013

International Self-Counsel Press
All rights reserved.

For those who follow the tax golden rule: If a taxpayer always files his or her tax returns honestly, perfectly, and on time, keeps all supporting documentation, and pays all his or her taxes when due, the person need not fear the Canada Revenue Agency.
For all others: Beware.
Canada’s tax laws are very powerful and the way in which these laws are applied may have very serious consequences for a taxpayer. The outcome is sometimes fair, and sometimes not. And due to the great power bestowed upon the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA), there is a great possibility that tax laws can be used to oppress taxpayers.
Lord Denning, a famous and influential English judge, said of tax legislation that it is “… drawn so widely that in some hands it might be an instrument of oppression. It might be said that: honest people need not fear: that it will never be used against them … that is an attractive argument, but I would reject it. Once great power is granted, there is a danger of it being abused.”
Recently I spoke to a taxpayer who, like many other Canadians, operated a small corporation with three employees who worked with the owner and his wife. The corporation performed oil field consulting services in the oil sands of Northern Alberta for 15 years. The corporation had a tax debt of approximately $200,000 and with its current contracts it would have been able to pay the entire debt off within a year or less. Unfortunately for the corporation, its three employees, and its husband and wife owners, the cry for help came too late. By the time I provided a preliminary consultation, the corporation was in the midst of closing down.
Despite the fact that the corporation had been generating a profit of more than $25,000 per month after all employees and expenses were paid, and would have easily and quickly been able to pay off its tax bill, a number of things had gone wrong. The tax debt had been accumulating over a number of years, but the corporation was able to weather and survive various recessions which had caused many other businesses in the oil industry to fail. With the sharp rise in oil prices, the corporation was finally gaining strength and over the year prior to my consultation with the taxpayer, the corporation had been able to reduce its tax debt from $425,000 to less than half of that; however, this was not good enough for the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA). The CRA wanted the debt paid off in full and the collections agent would not wait any longer.
Within a one-week period, the director of the corporation had discovered that the corporate bank account was frozen, and that all remaining funds had been taken by the CRA. Further, he learned that the CRA would be giving him 30 days in which to pay off the debt in full. Unfortunately because the corporation was in trouble with the CRA, the banks would not lend any funds to pay off the debt, and the director of the corporation was forced to comply with a number of harsh demands made by the CRA in order to arrange a payment plan for the outstanding debt and to have its bank account unfrozen.
These demands included providing bank statements and credit card statements for the three previous months as well as financial records, an accounts receivable listing, and the names of all corporate clients. The taxpayer was told that this information had to be provided in order to prove to the CRA that the corporation could afford the $20,000 per month payment plan that had been proposed by the director. The collections agent promised that the information from the taxpayer would only be used to verify income and determine ability to pay, and the taxpayer thought it would be best to fully comply with the request. By cooperating with the CRA, the taxpayer provided information which was ultimately used against the corporation.
By the time I had spoken to the taxpayer, the CRA had already send a letter to each of the corporation’s five clients advising them that if they owed any money to the corporation that they were required by law to remit it to the CRA instead of to the corporation. This effectively blocked any payments to the corporation from its clients.
Within days of being provided with the client list, the CRA had effectively stopped the flow of all funds to the corporation, leaving it without the means to pay employees or purchase fuel for its trucks. Further, these letters damaged the corporation’s reputation severely within the industry, and out of fear that the corporation could no longer deliver services effectively, four of its five contracts were cancelled within days. By the time the CRA had released the corporate bank account, there was no more business to be had, there were no employees left to fulfill the remaining contract, and there was a husband and wife team who had already remortgaged their home in order to help their business during the rough times.
Within a few weeks the couple started missing mortgage and vehicle payments, and within a few short months they lost their home and one of their two vehicles, and had to sell virtually everything they owned in order to survive.
The corporation was forced to shut down, and since the tax debt was primarily GST and payroll source deductions, as directors of the corporation, the couple was faced with the director’s liability claims causing a brand new collections agent at the CRA to pursue them personally for the debt.
Ultimately after the corporation closed, the taxpayers obtained employment working for companies in their industry. But after they were personally assessed for the corporation’s debt, and after their wages were garnished by 40 percent to pay the CRA, they had no choice but to declare personal bankruptcy and end the torment.
At the end of the day, following the freezing and emptying of the corporate bank account, which resulted in approximately $13,000 of the tax debt being paid, and following the closure of the corporation, the loss of five jobs, and the personal bankruptcies of the two directors, the CRA never received another dime of the $200,000 in outstanding taxes, which otherwise would have been paid within the year.
This is not a unique story. This happens every day in every province and territory across Canada.
In order to understand the CRA, you must familiarize yourself with the structure of the CRA, the mechanics of filing taxes, and the complexities of dealing with the CRA’s employees. Without understanding the basics, many of which are outlined in this book, you should not expect to succeed in defending yourself against the CRA. However, understanding the basic mechanics of the CRA is not enough. What most people do not realize, and why many people find it frustrating to deal with the CRA, is that in order to really understand it, you must realize that while it is governed by laws and rules, it is run by people and their personalities which are not always consistent or fair.
To understand the CRA is to understand how its employees operate. Despite how logical you think you are, and despite how much faith you have in the Canadian government, if you have not dealt with the many hundreds of collections agents within the CRA, you will have virtually no chance at predicting what they will do next or how they are motivated. This is because they don’t operate the way collections agents in the real world operate. They do not receive a commission for taxes collected, and thus by and large, do not really care if the tax debt is actually collected by the CRA. Instead, a great many collections agents are more concerned with closing a file quickly than they are concerned with collecting the debt — even if it means forcing a taxpayer into bankruptcy.
To be able to understand the CRA employees, and in order to effectively deal with the agency — especially the collections agents — you must leave traditional logic behind. You need to get into the mindset of the public servant on the other end of the phone who perhaps aspires to be a manager one day, and wants a pay increase each year, but wants to go home at 4:30 when his or her shift is over.
You must think about what it is like to work for a company that has a virtually unlimited budget and will always have the money to pay its employees regardless of how much money the employees earn for it or how the economy is doing. Consider what it is like to work for a company that always has money for its payroll and a company that could never go bankrupt or close down. It’s a company where employees can make whatever promises they want to the clients, but invariably refuse to put anything in writing so they can routinely break those promises and not suffer any consequences. Consider it a company that rewards employees for closing files rather than earning money, and allocates more money towards the employees’ budget for each conviction of taxpayers in criminal court for failing to file a return on time. In essence, it is a company that is so very different from any company in the country that its employees have lost touch with how a real business operates. When you understand all of this, you will begin to understand the CRA.

Section 91(3) of the Constitution Act , 1867, provides the ability for the federal government to tax, and section 92(2) provides that ability for the provinces to tax. It was not until 1917 that the federal government started to apply an income

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